Genus PARUS

The genus Parus, of which the Great Tit of England may be considered the type, contains those Tits which are not crested and in which the tail is slightly rounded. They have a broad, black, ventral band and in. this character agree with Machlolophus, which, however, possesses a long pointed crest.
The true Tits are found over a considerable portion of the world. Five species inhabit the Indian Empire, two being found over the greater part of Europe and Asia, i.e. major and palustris; two, nuchalis and monticolus, being local; and the fifth, cyanus, a very rare visitor.
In Parus the feathers of the crown are rather long, but do not form a crest; the tail is considerably shorter than the wing, and the outer feathers are shorter than the central ones by about the length of the hind claw.
Key to Species.
A. Plumage not blue and white.
a. Lower plumage whitish buff, or fawn, but not bright yellow.
a1. Back and rump ashy or greenish P. major, p. 73.
b1 Back and rump black P. nuchalis, p. 79.
c1 Back and rump olive-brown P. palustris, p. 81.
b. Lower plumage bright yellow P. monticolus, p. 80.
B. Plumage all blue and white above P. cyanus, p. 81.
Parus major-
The Great-Tits or Grey-Tits may be divided into two groups— the first group with green backs and yellow under parts, the second with grey backs and the under parts ranging from practically pure white to fawn or buff.
The first group, that of the true Parus major, ranges over the whole of Europe, extreme Northern Africa and Northern Asia to Japan. Southwards it extends to Palestine, Asia Minor and Northern Persia.
The second group, which we may call the Indian cinereus group, is to be found through Southern Persia and North Arabia, throughout India and in a loop working North, including Afghanistan, Syr Daria and Amu Daria in Turkestan, Tianschan and Kashmir. East it is found through Burma and Southern China and the countries South of them. Between these two distinct groups we have more or less intermediate forms found in Tibet, Northern Shan States, and Central Asia.
Within Indian limits we have no form approaching the European Parus major major group, all our geographical races belonging to the grey cinereus group.
Key to Subspecies.
A. No green on back.
a. Upper and lower plumage darker; tail black on inner web with grey edge, and
all grey on outer web. Wing 60 to 68 mm., tail 53 to 61 mm P. m. cinereus, p. 74.
b. Paler; upper parts a pale clear blue-grey,under parts almost white, nuchal patch
distinct and nearly white. Wing 68 to[p. 76,
75 mm., tail 52 to" 63 mm P. m. intermedius,
c. Upper and lower parts darker, nuchal patch greyer and inconspicuous.
a1. Larger; wing 70 to 79 mm., tail 60 [p. 76.
to 70 mm. P. m, kaschmiriensis,
b. Smaller; wing 63 to 70 mm., tail 52 . [p. 77.
to 63 mm P.m. planorum,
d. Upper plumage as dark as cinereus; tail
black on both webs with narrow grey edges. Wing 63 to 74 mm., tail[p. 77.
51 to 62 mm P.m. mahrattarum,
B, Some green on upper plumage.
e. Upper parts and scapulars all olive-green ;
wing 66 to 79 mm., tail 66 to 74 mm... P. m. tibetanus,78.
f. Green confined to extreme upper back; [p-78
wing 61 to 68 mm., tail 53 to 61 mm... P. m. commixtus,

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India, Including Ceylon And Burma-birds(second Edition)
Reference: 
Baker, EC S (1922–1930) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Second edition. vol.1 1922.
Title in Book: 
Genus PARUS
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
Year: 
1922
Page No: 
73
M_ID: 
21245
M_SN: 
Parus
Volume: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 
id: 
2436

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith