THE CRESTED DOMINICAN CARDINAL
Le Paroare, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. p. 500 (1775).
The Crested Cardinal, Brown’s, Illustr. of Zool. p. 54. pl. xxiii. (1776).
Loxia coronata, Miller, Cimelia Physica, p. 4. pl. ii, A (1776).
Le Cardinal Dominiquain hupe de la Louisiane. Pl. Enl. 103 (1777).
Fringilla dominicana cristata, Bodd. Tab. des Pl. Enl. 103 (1783).
Crested Dominican Grosbeak, Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. p. 123. Var. A (1783).
Pope Grosbeak, Penn. Arctic Zoology, ii. p. 350 (1785).
Crested Dominican Grosbeak, Lath. Gen. Syn. Suppl, i. p. 151 (1787).
Loxia dominicana, Gmel. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 848. 8. B (1788).
Loxia cucullata, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 378 (1790).
Loxia cucullata, Daud. Trait. d’Ornith. ii. p. 381 (1800).
Loxia cucullata, Shaw, Nat. Misc. xi. pl. 433 (1800).
Crestudo roxo, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 461, num. cxxviii. (1802).
Le Paroare Huppe, Vieill. Ois. Chant, p. 105. t. 70 (1805).
Le Huppe rouge, Azara, Voy. dans l’Amer. Merid, iii. p. 283 (1809).
Loxia cucullata, Shaw, Gen. Zool. ix. p. 264. pl. 48 (1815).
Fringilla cucullata, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. xii. p. 231 (1817).
Crested Dominican Grosbeak, Lath. Gen. Hist. Birds, v. p. 279 (1822).
Fringilla cucullata, Vieill. Encyel. Meth. p. 953 (1823).
Fringilla cucullata, Licht. Verz. Doubl. Mus. p. 22 (1823).
Crested Dominican Grosbeak (Cuv.), Griff. Anim. Kingd. ii. p. 137 (1829).
Paroaria cucullata, Bonap. Sagg. Distr. Metod. p, 141 (1831).
Fringilla cucullata, D’Orb. Syn. Av. p. 82 (1837).
Spiza cucullata, Gray et Mitch. Gen. of Birds, ii. p. 375 (1844).
Calyptrophorus cucullata, Cab. Arch, fur Natur. Ornith. Notiz. ii. p. 329 (1847).
Paroaria cucullata, Reichb. Avium Syst. taf. Ixxvi. fig (1850).
Paroaria cucullata, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 471 (1850).
Calyptrophorus cucullata, Cab. Mus. Hein. pt. i. p. 145 (1850-1).
Paroaria cucullata, Gray, Gen. et Subgen. Birds, p. 78 (1855).
Paroaria cucullata, Burm. Syst. Ueb. Bras. iii. p. 210 (1856).
Paroaria cucullata, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 434.
Paroaria cucullata, Sclater, Cat. Amer. Birds, p. 108 (1862).
Passerina cucullata, Gray, Hand-List Birds, ii. p. 97 (1870).
Calyptrophorus cucullata, Sundev. Avium Dispon. Tentam. p. 34 (1872).
Paroaria cucullata, Sclater et Salv. Nomen. Av. Neotr, p. 30 (1873).
Paroaria cucullata, Durnford, Ibis, 1877, p. 171.
Coccothraustes cucullatus, Russ, Stubenvogel, i. p: 541. taf. xiii (1879).
Paroaria cucullata, Schmidt, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 313.
Paroaria cucullata, Gibson, Ibis, 1880, pp. 19, 27.
Paroaria cucullata, Durnford, Ibis, 1880, p. 418.
Paroaria cucullata, E. W. White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, p. 598.
Paroaria cucullata, Sclater, Vert. Anim. Gard. Zool. Soc. p. 248 (1883).
Figures. Brown’s, Ill. Zool. pl. xxiii. Miller’s, Cim. Phy. pl. ii, A. Pl. Enl. 103. Shaw, Nat. Misc. pl. 433.
Gen. Zool. pl. 48. Vieill. O. C. t. 70.
English. Crested Cardinal Crested Paroare, Crested Dominican Cardinal of Louisiana, Pope Grosbeak, Crested Dominican Grosbeak, Red-headed Cardinal and Red-crested Cardinal.
French. Le Paroare, Le Cardinal Dominiquain Hupe de la Louisiane, Le Cardinal Huppe, Le Paroare Huppe, Le Huppe Rouge.
German. Dominikaner Kardinal-Fink mit einem Kamme. Der gehdubte graue Kardinal.
Italian. Il cardinal uceello eiuffetto.
Habitat. Argentine Republic, Bolivia and Brazil.
Mule. Crest, bead and throat ending in a narrow point on the middle of the breast, scarlet ; hind margins of ears black ; upper part of neck, back, rump, upper tail-coverts, scapulars, great-and lesser wing-coverts, sides and patch on sides of chest, slaty grey ; primaries black, outer edges silvery grey, first black ; secondaries broadly edged with pale grey ; tail black, outer ones margined and tipped with pale grey ; centre of feathers on hind neck, narrow band across back of head uniting with sides of neck, breast, abdomen, under wing-and tail-coverts and thighs dirty white ; under surface of wing and tail pale grey : iris reddish brown ; bill pale brown, darkest at base of culmen, lower mandible nearly white ; legs dark brown : length 7.2, wing 4.1, tail 3.6, tars. 1.0, culm. 0.55.
Male. Nearly adult. Similar, but with a few black margins on the feathers of the chest, thighs pale grey.
Female. Similar, but the scarlet of the head not so brilliant.
Young Bird. Similar, with head and throat pale rufous-brown, intermixed with scarlet ; above tinged with pale olive-brown ; primaries and secondaries dark brown ; sides and flanks tinged with pale brown : bill and feet as in the adult.
Observ. The adult male and female are almost identical in colour and markings, the young are easily distinguished by the pale rufous head and throat, brown primaries and secondaries. In confinement they become more or less black all over, especially when fed on hempseed.
IN the early days of Buffon, Latham, Gmelin, the older ornithologists and authors, this very beautiful Cardinal, was considered to be the male, or a variety of the more abundant species the Dominican Cardinal, so well known in Brazil and the adjacent countries to the south and west, and easily distinguished from the present bird by the absence of a crest, they had reason to suppose it was the male, on account of the sexes of this peculiar group of birds being so alike, that it is only by dissection this can be determined.
The area occupied by this bird is very extensive, being found through¬out the middle and southern portion of Brazil, throughout Paraquay, the northern portion of the Argentine Republic, La Plata and extending its range into the great ravines of Bolivia.
With regard to its habits Burmeister says that it "Inhabits singly or in pairs, the damp bushy plains on the borders of the large rivers in the interior of Brazil, namely the Bio St. Francisco below its confluence with the Rio das Velhas.
“The bird is found in an area which extends southwards as far as Montivideo, and makes its nest in dense thickets, builds a fairly large nest with dry stalks, at a moderate height, and lays 3 to 4 longish oval white eggs, closely sprinkled with greyish-green spots darkest at the larger end.” Mr. H. Durnford on the Birds of the Province of Buenos Ayres says—“I scarcely think this ought to be included in my list, as all the specimens I have seen here, have probably been birds escaped from cages. I found it in April very common up the Parana at Baradero, where it frequented thickets and trees.”
Mr. Durnford also “found it about six miles from Tucuman.”
Mr. E. Gibson “On the Ornithology of Cape San Antonio, Buenos Ayres, ‘ Ibis,’ 1880, gives us a very full and most interesting account of this species, which I take the liberty of quoting. He says—“ Curiously enough, this pretty bird and sweet songster is now common in our district, while twenty-five years ago it was not to be found nearer than Dolores, sixty miles to the north-west. It remains during the whole year, and breeds with us. Quite a wood-frequenting bird, one rarely sees it either in the plains or about the swamps. It is not at all shy, and, particularly in the winter months, may be seen every day in the patio, looking for its share of food from the kitchens, in company with various other birds. One of our men was very successful in trapping them there ; and even adult birds soon became tame after being caged. In Buenos Ayres it is one of the most common and prized of caged birds. Those I have seen were fed principally on thistle-seeds, millet, soaked bread, fruit, &c., &c. The leisurely sweet whistle is well known, and, as I have found, is not very difficult of imitation. I have kept a bird res¬ponding to me for some time before it discovered the nature of its rival. The young accompany the parents till well on into the winter, but do not sing or acquire their full plumage till the ensuing spring, the head and crest remaining of a dull brick-red in the interval.
“Breeding-Notes.—It nests from the end of October to the middle of November, retiring for that purpose to the woods.
"The nest is generally placed at the end of a branch of a tala tree, about eight or ten feet from the ground. It is a large shallow construc¬tion, built of wild vine tendrils or twigs and wood, and lined with horse-hair. Sometimes the last material greatly predominates ; and I have then seen the nest so frail that one could see through the bottom of it. The uneasy approaches of the birds frequently betray its situation, should an intruder appear in the vicinity. Three is the largest and most usual number of eggs laid. The clutches of eggs vary greatly in appear¬ance, and still more so in size.
“The commonest type measures about 34-40 x 34/40 and in colour is of a brownish ground, thickly marked with brown spots. One clutch of three, in my possession, fitly illustrates the above noted variation. The eggs average 1.4/40 x 23/40 while the ground-colour, of which there is a good deal seen, has a greenish tinge ; the spots also incline to the blunt end ; and in addition there is a dark ring there, more or less pronounced.”
Among the notes which I have collected is one “On the Birds from the Argentine Republic” written by my lamented friend Mr. E. W. White, he says it is “A tolerably common bird in the upper Riverine provinces ; and much kept as a cage bird in Buenos Ayres, as it has a very fine whistle, almost rivalling that of the English Blackbird in power, but not in variety.”
No. Sex. Mus. Locality. Length. Wing. Tail. Tars. Culm.
a Male E. B. Buenos Ayres. 8 4.1 3.6 1 0
b Male E. B. Brazil. 7.2 4.1 3.6 1 0.55
c Female E. B. Brazil. 7.5 3.8 3.5 1 0.55
d jun. E. B. ? 7 3.6 3.2 0.9 0.55
a ? M. M. Brazil. 0 3.6 0 0 0.55
The figures (Plate I.) are taken from b and d, life size.