1130. Pagophila eburnea

1130. Ivory Gull.
Pagophila eburnea (Phipps), Voy. N. Pole, App. p. 187 (1774) ; (Naum.), x. p. 341, Taf. 263 ; Carte, Journ. R. Dubl. Soc. i. pp. 57, 60, pls. 1, 2 (eggs) ; (Gould), B. of E. v. pl. 437 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, v. pl. 62 ; (Audubon), B. Am. vii. pl. 445 ; Dresser, viii. p. 349, pl. 595 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 301 ; id. Manual, p. 685 ; Collett, Ibis, 1888, p. 440, pl. xiii. (nestling and eggs) ; Lilford, vi. p. 68, pl. 30 ; ? L. albus, Gunnerus, in Leems. Beskrif. Lappl. p. 285 (1767) ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 1055 ; Ridgway, p. 24.
Mouette blanche, French ; Schnee-Mewe, Elfenbein-Mewe, German ; Iismaage, Dan. and Norweg. ; Hvitmase, Swed ; Valkealokki, Finn.
Male ad. (Spitsbergen). Entire plumage white ; bill French-grey at the base and on the culmen, pea-yellow at the tip ; legs and feet black ; iris dark hair-brown, eyelids brick-red. Culmen 1.5, wing 12.2, tail 5.9, tarsus 1.5 inch. Sexes alike. The young bird is marked with blackish grey.
Hab. The most northern parts of the Polar world, straying south in winter to Britain, Scandinavia, the coasts of Germany and Holland ; has once been obtained at the mouth of the Somme in France, and once near Lausanne in Switzerland. In North Asia it occurs in Kamchatka, and throughout Arctic America as far south as New Brunswick and Newfoundland as a rare visitant.
Is generally to be met with in the vicinity of ice-masses, and feeds chiefly on the leavings of walrus and seal hunters, and is very tame and confiding. McClintock found it breeding on Prince Patrick’s Island in 1852-53, Malmgren in N.E. Spits¬bergen in 1865, and Capt. Johannesen found a breeding colony on a small island off Spitsbergen in August, 1887, and obtained 19 eggs. The nests were composed of green moss, a few stalks and leaves of algae, a few small wood splinters, feathers, and one or two particles of lichen. The eggs, 1 or 2 in number, are light greyish brown with a faint admixture of yellowish green in ground-colour, and are spotted and blotched with dark brown, and most nearly resemble those of Larus canus. In size they measure about 2.36 by 1.32.

A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 2. 1903.
Title in Book: 
1130. Pagophila eburnea
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
Page No: 
Common name: 
Ivory Gull
Ivory Gull
Pagophila eburnea
Vol. 2

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