(960) Oriolus xanthonotus xanthonotus.
The Malay Black-headed Oriole.
Oriolus xanthonotus Horsf., Trans. L. S., xiii, p. 152 (1822) (Java) ; Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 505.
Vernacular names. Sa-nwin-wa (Burmese).
Description. - Adult male. Whole head, extreme upper back, chin, throat and breast black; lesser wing-coverts yellow, median coverts black with yellow tips, greater coverts black; primaries black, all but the first, or first and second, with narrow whitish edges; secondaries black with narrow yellow margins; upper plumage golden yellow; tail black, the lateral rectrices with yellow patches on the inner webs at their tips increasing in size towards the outermost; breast, flanks and abdomen white with broad black streaks and sometimes a wash of cinnamon; under tail-coverts yellow with a few black streaks ; under wing-coverts black and yellow. The flanks are generally washed with yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson ; bill pale to dark fleshy or fleshy-brown; legs and feet plumbeous, the claws blackish.
Measurements. Total length about 240 mm.; wing 104 to 110 mm.; tail 66 to 70 mm.; tarsus 19 to 20 mm.; culmen 20 to 21 mm.
Adult female. Whole upper plumage olive-yellow, slightly darker on the crown; tail darker olive with black shafts and all but the centre pair with yellow tips to the inner webs and with blackish sub-tips; wing-coverts olive, the median and greater coverts often with cinnamon edges; primary-coverts and primaries brown with pale edges, as in the male; secondaries olive-green ; lower plumage white, tinged with grey and dully streaked with grey-brown on the chin and throat, boldly streaked with black on the lower breast, abdomen and flanks; under tail-coverts bright yellow.
Colours of soft parts as in the male but duller. Nestling like the female but with the head greyish and the cinnamon edges to the wings more conspicuous.
Distribution. The extreme South of Tenasserim through the Malay States and South-West Siam to Sumatra and Java.
Nidification. Two nests and eggs sent me by Mr. W. A. T. Kellow are typical Oriole's, but are very small, the latter measuring from 25.5 x 19.2 mm. to 26.0 x l9.8 mm. The ground-colour is a warm pink, the markings being of chestnut-brown underlaid with others of lavender. They were both taken in the end of February.
Habits. Those of the genus.