(959) Oriolus xanthornus ceylonensis.
The Ceylon Black-headed Oriole.
Oriolus ceylonensis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, p. 347 (1850) (Ceylon). Oriolus melanocephalus. Blanr. & Gates, i, p. 506.
Vernacular names. Ka-karulla (Cing.); Marnkoel, Mambala-Kuravi (Tarn, in Ceylon).
Description. Sex for sex similar to those of the preceding race, but smaller and with less yellow on the wings, especially on the innermost secondaries.
Colours of soft parts as in the Indian Black-headed Oriole.
Measurements. Wing 122 to 130 mm.; culmen 27 to 29 mm.
Distribution. Ceylon and the extreme South of Travancore.
Nidification. Similar to that of the preceding birds but the eggs are much paler, generally almost pure white and they are also much smaller. Average of forty eggs 27.0 x l9.4 mm. : maxima 29.4 x 21.0 and 29.3 x 21.2 mm.; minima 23.5 x 18.9 mm. The normal full clutch is two, rarely three.
There appear to be two breeding-seasons, February to May and again October to early December.
Habits. Those of the species.