521. Oriolus melanocephalus.
The Indian Black-headed Oriole.
Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 160 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 215; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 269; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 110; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 39; Hume, N. & E. p. 301; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 474; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 215 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 660; Hume, Cat. no. 472; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 357; Oates, B. B. i, p. 214 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 105 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 187; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nded. i, p. 359. Oriolus ceylonensis, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 347 (1850); Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 111; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 118; id. S. F. i, p. 268; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 317; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 213; Hume Dav. S. F. vi, p. 330; Hume, Cat.
no. 473 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 215.
Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, chin, throat, and breast black; abdomen and flanks white, streaked with black; under tail-coverts yellow; sides of the breast tinged with yellow ; axillaries grey; under wing-coverts black, margined with yellow; back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts yellow; median wing-coverts black, broadly tipped with yellow; the remaining coverts and all the quills black, most of them very narrowly edged with yellow; tail black, tipped with yellow, very narrowly on the median pair of feathers, and to an increasing extent outwardly.
Female. The whole upper plumage, with the lesser wing-coverts and tertiaries, olive-yellow, and the feathers of the head with dusky striations ; lores grey; feathers round the edges of the eyelids yellow; the ear-coverts olive-yellow, with paler shafts; chin and throat whitish ; breast, abdomen, and flanks white, streaked with black; under tail-coverts yellow; median and greater wing-coverts brown, edged with olive-yellow ; primaries dark brown, very narrowly edged with pale yellow; secondaries dark brown, broadly edged with olive-yellow ; tertiaries wholly olive-yellow ; tail olive-yellow, all the feathers tipped with bright yellow, as in the male, and all but the middle feathers with the portion near the shaft more or less dark brown.
Owing to the adult female in this species being streaked, the young resemble her closely, but the wing-coverts of the latter are always edged with ferruginous. The young male in passing to the adult stage undergoes the same changes as the young of the other Yellow Orioles. Occasionally an apparently adult male is found with black spots on the back and black margins to the rump-feathers.
The legs and feet are plumbeous blue or very dark plumbeous, the bill very dark fleshy or pale fleshy brown; the irides crimson (Hume & Davison).
Length 8 ; tail 2.8; wing 4.4; tarsus .8 ; bill from gape 1.1.
Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.