961. Oriolus traillii traillii

(961) Oriolus traillii traillii (Vigors).
THE INDIAN MAROON ORIOLE.
Oriolus traillii, Fauna B. I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. iii, p. 14.
Oriolus traillii traillii, ibid. vol. viii, p. 648.
This handsome Oriole occurs from the Sutlej Valley in the Himalayas to Eastern Assam, and thence throughout Burma to the South of Tenasserim. Eastwards it is found in Siam and Annam.
The Maroon Oriole breeds, I believe, between 2,000 and 6,000 feet throughout its range, either in forest or in densely wooded open grass country. I never found it in really open country, while Gammie, who took its nest at about 2,500 feet in Sikkim, also found it breeding “in a small patch of dense jungle.”
Most often, I think, the nest is built high up in some tree just on the edge of tall tree forest where it is evergreen and very densa or in rather lighter deciduous forest. One nest taken in the Khasia Hills was fully 50 feet from the ground and I have seen others
29 or 40 feet up, while, on the other hand, I have taken some as low down as 15 feet in small saplings.
Mandelli found one nest built in an upright fork but, with this exception, all those I have seen or heard of have been quite typical cradles suspended in a horizontal branch of a tree or from creeper- stems on tree-trunks.
The nests are very massive for an Oriole’s and very well built. The principal materials are grass and fibre, but these are mixed with other materials to a far greater extent than I have seen in other Orioles’ nests. Bamboo-leaves are often used, other dead and skeleton leaves in some numbers, creeper-stems and tendrils, and sometimes stems of plants, whilst twice I have seen scraps of green and dry moss used on the exterior. The average measure¬ments are about 6.1/2 inches wide and 4 inches deep externally and about 4.1/2 by 3 inches internally, the lips often turned a little inwards.
The breeding season lasts from early April to the end of May, but the latest date I have recorded is the 24th June.
The eggs are quite typical Oriole’s, the ground sometimes pinkish- white, but generally a warm pink, while the markings are rather bold and handsome in most eggs. In a clutch of three the markings are of deep chocolate-red, in one egg being most dense in a ring round the larger end, which is suffused with deep rosy pink. The number laid is nearly always three.
Twenty-four eggs average 29.4 x 20.6 mm. : maxima 30.7 x 21.0 and 28.9 x 21.7 mm. ; minima 26.3 x 21.4 and 30.5 x 18.1 mm.
We twice snared the male on the nest, so it must take a share in incubation, but, so far as I know, it takes no part in building operations.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 2. 1933.
Title in Book: 
961. Oriolus traillii traillii
Spp Author: 
Vigors
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
961
Year: 
1933
Page No: 
504
Common name: 
Indian Maroon Oriole
M_ID: 
19540
M_CN: 
Maroon Oriole
M_SN: 
Oriolus traillii
Volume: 
Vol. 2
Term name: 
id: 
14060

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith