335. GOLDEN ORIOLE.
Oriolus galbula,, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 160 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p. 171, Taf. 61 ; Hewitson, i. p. 94. pl. xxvi. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. ii. pl. 71 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 31 ; Newton, i. p. 233 ; Dresser, iii. p. 365, pl. 144 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. iii. p. 191 ; Saunders, p. 145 ; Lilford, iii. p. 98. pl. 49.
Loriot, French ; Papa-figos, Portug. ; Oropendola, Span. ; Rigogolo, Ital. ; Pirol, Goldamsel, German ; Wielewall, Dutch ; Guldperol, Dan. ; Sommargylling, Swed. ; Kuhankeittaja, Finn. ; Ivolga, Russ.
Male ad. (Finland). Above and below rich golden yellow ; lores black ; wings jet black with narrow external margins and tips of sulphur-yellow ; edge of wing and under wing-coverts rich yellow ; tail jet black, the outer feathers broadly, the inner ones less terminated with yellow, the two central ones only tipped with that colour ; bill dull reddish ; legs plumbeous ; iris blood-red. Culmen 0.95, wing 5.9, tail 3.6, tarsus 0.85 inch. The female is duller in colour, has the back and scapulars tinged with green, the under parts yellowish white striped with blackish brown, or in very old birds yellow like the male. The young bird has the upper parts greyish yellow washed with green, the under parts white tinged with yellow and clearly streaked with blackish brown.
Hab. Europe generally, a rare visitant to Great Britain ; Asia Minor, Persia and Turkestan, ranging as far east as Sind and Dauria, where it is rare ; wintering in Africa as far south as Damaraland and Natal.
In its general habits it is restless, shy, and unobtrusive, frequenting groves, wood, and gardens, usually keeping amongst the foliage high up in the trees. Its flight is rolling and heavy, but swift. Its alarm-note is a harsh chrrr, and it has a peculiar harsh, mewing call-note. Its song is a clear, loud whistle, resembling the syllables huidleo, huitidleo, huidleo. It feeds on insects, berries, and fruit of various kinds. It breeds late in May or early in June, building a neat basket-shaped nest of strips of bark, grass-bents, &c., lined with fine grass-bents, and placed in the small fork of a branch, to which it is carefully twisted and woven. The eggs, 4 to 5 in number, are glossy white, marked with a few pale purplish brown shell-blotches, and more or less spotted with deep reddish brown, in size averaging about 1.20 by 0.85.
335. Oriolus galbula
335. GOLDEN ORIOLE.