952. Oriolus oriolus oriolus

(952) Oriolus oriolus oriolus.

The European Oriole.

Coracias oriolus Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 107 (1758) (Sweden). Oriolus galbula. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 505.

Vernacular names. Pilak (Hind.); Pashnool (Kashm.).

Description. - Adult male. Lores black; inner secondaries black with yellow tips ; wing-coverts and primary-coverts black, the latter tipped with yellow, primaries black with narrow margins and tips of yellowish white; middle tail-feathers black with narrow yellow tips, the lateral feathers with the yellow increasing until the outer feather is nearly all yellow ; remainder of plumage bright yellow.

Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson-pink to deep crimson ; eyelids pinkish; bill dull livid pink to brownish red; legs and feet plumbeous grey.

Measurements. Total length about 250 to 260 mm.; wing 146 to 160 mm.; tail 85 to 99 mm.; tarsus about 21 to 24 mm.; culm en 23 to 26 mm.

Adult female differs from the male in having the yellow of the upper parts tinged with green. The central tail-feathers are often also tinged with green, and the underparts are whiter and are streaked with dull brown.

Colours of soft parts. Iris dull pinkish; remainder as in the male.

Measurements. A trifle smaller than the male.

Young male. Similar to the female but the yellow less pure and the streaks on the underparts darker and more numerous.

Nestling. Dull pale green; the black of the wings and tail, where showing, dull and brownish; the lower parts profusely and strongly streaked; the upper parts faintly so.

Distribution. The whole of Southern and Central Europe, straggling as far North as Great Britain; Northern Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia, Russian Turkistan, straggling into North-western India in the Winter.

Nidification. The Golden Oriole breeds during May and early June, making a nest quite similar to that of the next race and laying eggs which can only be distinguished by their greater size. According to Jourdain, 100 eggs average 30.87 x 21.3 mm.: maxima 36.0 x 22.2 and 32.0 x 23.5 mm.: minima 28.0 x 20.3 and 31.0 x 20.0 mm. The number of eggs laid is generally four or five.

Habits. These call for no remark, as they are practically the same as those of the Indian subspecies next described.

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India, Including Ceylon And Burma-birds(second Edition)
Reference: 
Baker, EC S (1922–1930) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Second edition. vol.3 1926.
Title in Book: 
952. Oriolus oriolus oriolus
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
952
Year: 
1926
Page No: 
5
Common name: 
European Oriole
M_ID: 
19482
M_CN: 
Eurasian Golden Oriole
M_SN: 
Oriolus oriolus
Volume: 
Vol. 3
Term name: 
id: 
3673

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