(952) Oriolus oriolus oriolus.
The European Oriole.
Coracias oriolus Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 107 (1758) (Sweden). Oriolus galbula. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 505.
Vernacular names. Pilak (Hind.); Pashnool (Kashm.).
Description. - Adult male. Lores black; inner secondaries black with yellow tips ; wing-coverts and primary-coverts black, the latter tipped with yellow, primaries black with narrow margins and tips of yellowish white; middle tail-feathers black with narrow yellow tips, the lateral feathers with the yellow increasing until the outer feather is nearly all yellow ; remainder of plumage bright yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Iris crimson-pink to deep crimson ; eyelids pinkish; bill dull livid pink to brownish red; legs and feet plumbeous grey.
Measurements. Total length about 250 to 260 mm.; wing 146 to 160 mm.; tail 85 to 99 mm.; tarsus about 21 to 24 mm.; culm en 23 to 26 mm.
Adult female differs from the male in having the yellow of the upper parts tinged with green. The central tail-feathers are often also tinged with green, and the underparts are whiter and are streaked with dull brown.
Colours of soft parts. Iris dull pinkish; remainder as in the male.
Measurements. A trifle smaller than the male.
Young male. Similar to the female but the yellow less pure and the streaks on the underparts darker and more numerous.
Nestling. Dull pale green; the black of the wings and tail, where showing, dull and brownish; the lower parts profusely and strongly streaked; the upper parts faintly so.
Distribution. The whole of Southern and Central Europe, straggling as far North as Great Britain; Northern Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia, Russian Turkistan, straggling into North-western India in the Winter.
Nidification. The Golden Oriole breeds during May and early June, making a nest quite similar to that of the next race and laying eggs which can only be distinguished by their greater size. According to Jourdain, 100 eggs average 30.87 x 21.3 mm.: maxima 36.0 x 22.2 and 32.0 x 23.5 mm.: minima 28.0 x 20.3 and 31.0 x 20.0 mm. The number of eggs laid is generally four or five.
Habits. These call for no remark, as they are practically the same as those of the Indian subspecies next described.