518. Oriolus kundoo.
The Indian Oriole.
Oriolus kundoo, Sykes, F. Z. S. 1832, p. 87; Blyth, Cat. p. 216; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 271; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 107; Hume & Henders. Lah. to York. p. 200, pi, xi; Hume, N. & E. p. 299; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 140; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 215 ; Hume, Cat. no. 470; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 194: Scully, S. F. viii, p. 297: id. Ibis, 1881, p. 440 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 193; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, p. 354.
Pilak, Hind.; Vanga-pandu, Tel.; Pawseh, Mahr.; Pashnool, Kashm.
Coloration. Male. The whole bead, body, and under wing-coverts rich yellow; lores and a space round and behind the eye black; middle tail-feathers black with narrow yellow tips, the others progressively less black and more yellow, the outermost feather almost entirely yellow, the black being confined to the base of the outer web ; wings- black, all the quills tipped and partially margined with yellow; basal third of primary-coverts black, remainder yellow.
Female. Differs from the male in having the back and scapulars tinged with green.
Iris maroon-red; bill brownish flesh-colour; legs and feet bluish-slate (Butler).
Length about 9.5 ; tail 3.6 ; wing 5.5; tarsus .9; bill from gape 1.4.
Distribution. The whole of India, from Kashmir and the Himalayas (up to 9000 feet) to Cape Comorin, and from Sind to Western Bengal, the furthest point to the east from which this species is recorded being Manbhoom.
This Oriole is a permanent resident in the plains and lower ranges of the Himalayas, and a summer visitor to Kashmir and the higher ranges. It extends into Afghanistan and Turkestan, but visits the latter country only in summer.
Habits, &c. Breeds from May to August, constructing a cradlelike nest of grass and strips of bark, which is suspended by the sides from the fork of a leafy branch of a large tree. The eggs, three or four in number, are white, spotted with black or reddish brown, and measure about 1.11 by .81.