293. PIED WAGTAIL.
Motacilla lugubris, Temm. Man. d’Orn. i. p. 253 (1820) ; Newton, i. p. 538 ; Dresser, iii. p. 239, pl. 125, fig. 3, 126, fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. x. p. 460 ; Saunders, p. 121 ; Lilford, iii. p. 101, pl. 52 ; M. yarrelli, Gould, B. of E. pref. to vol. ii. (1837) ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 1 ; Hewitson, i. p. 163, pl. xli. figs, 1, 2 ; Naum. xiii. pt. 2, p. 114, Taf. 377, fig. 1. ad. (England). Head, neck, upper parts, throat and breast deep black ; wing-coverts and inner secondaries externally margined with white ; two outer tail-feathers nearly white ; rest of tail black ; fore-head, sides of head and of neck and belly white ; flanks blackish ; bill and legs black. Culmen 0.6, wing 3.6, tail 3.75, tarsus 1.0 inch. The female has the back tinged with dark grey and the tail is shorter, and in winter both sexes lose the black on the chin and throat and are greyer. The young have the upper parts dull grey tinged with olive-buff, the throat, sides of neck, and breast buffy white tinged with yellowish, the lower throat and breast marked with black.
Hab. Great Britain and Western Europe as far east as southern Scandinavia, wintering in southern Europe as far east as Sardinia and Sicily, and in N. W. Africa. Frequents gardens and meadows, especially where the soil is moist, and near water, feeding or insects of various kinds, small crustacea and mollusca. It runs with ease and grace, and vibrates its body and tail. Where cattle are pasturing it often attends them to capture the insects they disturb, and will also follow the plough. Its call-note is a pleasant sharp cheep, and the male has a modulated rather simple song, which, however, is not often heard. Nidification commences in April or early in May, and the nest, which is placed in a hole, in an old wall, in a faggot stack, in a bank, or stone heap, is constructed of grass-stems, moss, and fine roots, and lined with wool, hair, or feathers. The eggs, 5 or 6 in number, are french white spotted and marked with greyish-brown, and are indistinguishable from those of M. alba.
293. Motacilla lugubris
293. PIED WAGTAIL.