Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Pall.
1007. :- G. javanicus, Horsf. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II, p. 863; Butler, Guzerat, Stray Feathers, Vol. IV, p. 34; Deccan, Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 442; Murray's Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, p. 332; Swinhoe and Barnes, Central India, Ibis, 1885, p. 138,
THE LITTLE CORMORANT.
Length, 19 to 20; expanse, 32; wing, 8.5 ; tail, 5.5 to 6; tarsus, 1.25; bill at front, 1.25.
Bill brown, livid-purple during breeding season; gular skin and orbits blackish, livid in summer; legs blackish, dusky-livid at the same season.
In winter, the plumage is more or less black, the feathers brown-edged on the neck, breast and back, and the chin, white.
In full breeding plumage, in June or July, the whole body is glossy black ; the head with a short occipital crest; the wing-coverts, scapulars, secondaries and tertiaries, as it were glossed with silvery, with a black margin, and the interscapulars with a narrow silvery centre ; a white triangular spot on the top of the head ; lores white, and a broad line through the eyes with white hairs, and several also on the nape and sides of the neck; chin black.
The young have the upper plumage brown, mixed with blackish, and the lower parts reddish brown, white posteriorly, and the throat whitish.
The Little Cormorant is abundantly spread throughout the entire region.
It is a permanent resident and breeds in company towards the end of the rains.
The nests, composed of sticks, are placed on trees, standing well out into the water. The eggs, three or four in number, are long ovals, more or less pointed at one end, with a chalky coating, white or bluish-white in color when fresh laid, but becoming soiled as incubation proceeds.
This coating is easily removable, and frequently becomes detached in the nest, leaving the hard greenish-blue shell visible. They measure 1.75 inches in length by 1.16 in breadth.