1528. Phalacrocorax javanicus.
The Little Cormorant.
?Hydrocorax niger, Vieill. N. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. viii, p. 88 (1817). Carbo javanicus, Horsf. Trans. Linn, Soc, xiii, p. 197 (1821). Carbo melanognathus, Brandt, Bull, Acad. St. Petersb. iii, p. 57 (1837). Graculus pygmaeus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 293 ; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 104; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 264 ; Oates, S. F. v, p. 170 ; nec Pallas. Graculus javanicus. Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 863; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 181; Butler & Hume,S. F. iv, p. 34. Graculus melanognathus, Hume, N. & E. p. 660; id. S. F. i, p. 289; Adam, ibid. p. 403, Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, apud Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 496; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 234; Cripps, ibid. p. 315; Hume, ibid, p. 497; id. Cat. no. 1007; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 372; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1191; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 96; Butler, ibid, p. 442 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 88; Davison, ibid. p. 419; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 234; id. In Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 273; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 439; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 305: Hume, S. F. xi, p. 352.
Pan-kowa, Jograbi, H. ; Pan-kowri, Pan-kouti, Beng. ; Niru-kahi, Tel.; Kadul Kugam, Nir Kakam, Tam. (Ceylon) ; Diya Kawa, Cing.
Coloration. Black, with a slight green gloss; scapulars and wing-coverts dark silvery grey, with a broad black border to each feather. In the breeding-season some scattered while feathers are developed on the crown and sides of the head, and a few long white hair-like plumes grow on the sides of the neck ; the feathers of the occiput and nape are slightly lengthened.
In non-breeding plumage there is a white throat bordering the gular pouch.
Young birds are brown with a white throat, the Coloration is , darker above; the back, rump, tail, and wing-feathers blackish; scapulars and wing-coverts grey with brown borders; middle of breast and abdomen whitish.
Bill brown, livid purple in the height of the breeding-season; gular skin and orbits blackish, livid in summer; legs blackish, dusky livid at the same season (Jerdon).
Length 20 ; tail (of 12 feathers) 5.75 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1.4 ; bill from gape 2.3.
Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in all low, well-watered areas, also in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.
Habits, &c. This is by far the commonest Indian Cormorant; it is found in rivers, marshes, and large tanks, but not on the sea-coast, at all events commonly. It is usually found singly or in small parties, but collects into flocks to roost, and breeds in enormous numbers on trees about water in July, August, or September in Northern India and in Burma, but in February and March in Ceylon. The eggs are 3 to 5 in number, and measure about 1.76 by 1.16.