1006. Megalaema marshallorum.
The Great Himalayan Barbet.
Megalaima virens, Blyth, Cat. p. 66; Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 635; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 308; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 415; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97; Marshall, Mon. Cap, p. 33, pl. xvi.; nec Bucco virens, Bodd. Megalaema marshallorum, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (4) vi, p. 348 (1870); Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 11; Cock & Marsh. S. F. i, p. 350; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 73 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 232; Hume, Cat. no. 191; id. S. F. xi, p. 66; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 250; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 318; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 63; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 108.
Traiho, H. Chamba; Miouli, at Mussooree; Nyahul, Neoul, Nepalese ; Kun-nyong. Lepcha.
Coloration. Feathers of head and neck all round black with deep violet-blue edges; back and scapulars brownish olive, the upper back with narrow pale green or greenish-yellow longitudinal streaks; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts grass-green, with brighter green edges; tail green above, blackish washed with pale blue below; secondary-coverts like back; primary-coverts and primaries near the base fringed with blue, outer webs of secondaries green, tertiaries bluer with the tips olive-brown, remainder of quills blackish brown, inner webs with yellowish-white margins, and outer webs of primaries with a pale linear border near the tips; upper breast dark olive-brown; lower breast and abdomen blue in the middle, yellow with broad brownish shaft-stripes at the sides; under tail-coverts scarlet.
Bill yellow, pale in front, dusky at the edge of the upper mandible; irides brown ; legs greenish horny (Jerdon).
Length 13; tail 4 ; wing 5.7; tarsus 1.25; bill from gape 2.1.
Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, between about 3000 and 8000 feet elevation, also south of the Assam Valley in Manipur, the Khasi hills, and, according to Blyth, Arrakan. Birds from Karennee referred to this species by Wardlaw Ramsay prove to belong to the next.
Habits, &c A forest bird; according to Jerdon, " it has a loud plaintive call (pi-o, pi-o), keeps to the top of high trees, lives, entirely on fruit, and has a strong and vigorous flight in great undulations." It sometimes is met with in small flocks. It makes nest-holes in various trees, in the trunks and larger branches, from 10 to 50 feet from the ground, and lays from the middle of May to the middle of July. The eggs are dull white, usually four in number, and measure on an average 1.37 by .98.