Alauda arborea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 287 (1766) ; Naum. iv. p. 192 Taf. 100, fig. 2 ; Hewitson, i. p. 179, pl. xlv. fig. 3 ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 167 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 16 ; Newton, i. p. 625 ; Dresser, iv. p. 321, pl. 232 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xiii. p. 636 ; Saunders, p. 251 ; Lilford, iv. p. 8, pl. 4.
Alouette lulu, French ; Cotovia, Portug. ; Totovia, Alondra de monte, Span. ; Tottavilla Ital. ; Baumlerche, Heidelerch, German ; Boom-Leeuwerik, Dutch ; Troeloerke, Norw. ; Hedeloerke, Dan. ; Tradlarka, Swed. ; Mehtaleivo, Finn. ; Youla, Liesnoi-Javronok, Russ.
Male ad. (England). Upper parts coloured as in A. arvensis but smaller, the crest fuller, the supercilium whiter and more pronounced, the outer larger wing-coverts are deep brown, but white at the base and tip ; first primary much longer ; tail short, the outermost feather with a grey terminal patch, the next two with a smaller white patch at the tip ; breast more clearly striped than in A. arvensis ; beak dark brown above, pale flesh coloured below ; legs pale flesh brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.45, wing 3.9, tail 2.1, tarsus 0.8, hind-toe with claw 0.85 inch. The female resembles the male, and the difference in the winter plumage is merely that it is slightly more rufous on the upper parts.
Hab. Europe, from central Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, east to the Ural ; the Caucasus and Transcaspia ; in winter to Palestine and N. Africa, and it also breeds in the Atlas mountains. In Great Britain, as in most of its range, it is partly resident and partly migratory.
Frequents uncultivated ground, especially sandy localities and heaths where trees are scattered about, and is not found in woods. It is lively and sprightly in its habits, but more shy than the Skylark. In summer it feeds chiefly on insects but on seeds and leaves of plants at other seasons, and seeks its food on the ground, running with ease and celerity, and roosts, like the Skylark, on the ground, but perches more often on trees. Its song is sweet and flute like, and uttered when it has risen to some height in the air and is descending spirally, or when ascending and floating in the air. The nest is placed on the ground, usually well concealed, and is constructed of grass-bents, and moss, lined with liner bents, hair, and wool, and is more compact than that of A. arvensis. The eggs 4 to 5 in number are white, sometimes with a greyish or reddish tinge, finely spotted with reddish brown, olive-brown or dark nut- brown, and measure about 0.82 by 0.62. Two broods are usually reared in the season.
557. Alauda arborea