498. Loxia leucoptera

498. White-Winged Crossbill.
LOXIA LEUCOPTERA.
Loxia leucoptera, Gmel Syst. Nat. i. p. 845 (1788) ; Audub. B. Amer, pl. 201 ; (Wilson), Am. Orn. iv. p. 48, pl. 31, fig. 3 ; Naum, xiii. p. 188, pl. 385, fig. 4 ; Gould, B. of E. iii. p. 203 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, ii. pi. 48 ; Newton, ii. p. 218 ; Dresser, iv. p. 137, pl. 204, fig. 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 443 ; Saunders, p. 204 ; Ridgway, p. 393.
Male ad. (N. America). Head, neck, and back carmine-red, with a pome¬granate tinge, often pomegranate red, the dark bases of the feathers showing through here and there ; rump claret-red ; scapulars black, slightly tinged with red ; wings and tail black ; wing-coverts broadly tipped with white, forming two white bands, inner secondaries slightly tipped with white ; under parts red like the upper parts, but the middle of the abdomen greyish white, tinged with red ; under tail-coverts dark slaty grey, broadly margined with white ; bill slender, light horn, darker at the tip ; legs brownish ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.8, height of bill at base 0.3, wing 3.4, tail 2.55, tarsus 0.6 inch. The female has the upper parts dull ashy grey, broadly striped with blackish brown, slightly tinged with yellow ; rump apple-yellow ; under parts greyish white, more finely striped with dull blackish brown, the middle of the abdomen nearly white ; wings and tail as in the male.
Hab. North America from Northern New England as far north as the spruce-forest extends, east to Alaska, in winter wandering to or beyond Lat. 40o. Has occurred in Greenland and Great Britain.
Frequents the spruce-woods and is tamer and more confiding than L. curvirostra, and in winter visits the lumber-camps in small flocks to obtain food. Its note is not unlike that of L. curvirostra and it is said to utter a musical song, but though I saw numbers during the breading season I never heard one sing. They make good cage birds and soon become very tame. It breeds in British North America in the spruce-forests, con¬structing a nest of dry twigs and green lichens, thinly lined with coarse hairs and shreds of the inner bark of trees. The eggs are pale blue spotted or dotted with black and ashy lilac, in size rather smaller than those of L. curvirostra. It breeds very early whilst the snow is still deep in the forests, and the nest is therefore very difficult to find.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 1. 1902.
Title in Book: 
498. Loxia leucoptera
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
498
Year: 
1902
Page No: 
342
Common name: 
White Winged Crossbill
M_ID: 
31012
M_CN: 
Two-barred Crossbill
M_SN: 
Loxia leucoptera
Volume: 
Vol. 1
id: 
11114

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