265. Crested Titmouse.
Lophophanes cristatus, (Linn.) Fauna, Suecica, p. 97 (1761) ; (Naum.) iv. p. 42. Taf. 94, fig. 3 ; (Hewitson), i. p. 154, pl. xxxix. fig. 3 ; (Gould), B. of E. ii. pl. 156 ; (id.) B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 26 ; (Newton), i. p. 499 ; Dresser, iii. p. 151, pl. 115 ; (Gadow), Cat. B. Br. Mus. viii. p. 27 ; (Saunders), p. 111 ; (Lilford), ii. p. 107, pl. 49.
Mesange huppee, French : Capuchino, Span. ; Cincia con ciuffo, Ital. ; Haubenmeise, German ; Tofsmeise, Dan. and Norweg. ; Tofsmes, Swed. ; Toyhlotiiainen, Finn.
Male ad. (Sweden). Crest long, lanceolate, black margined with white ; upper parts greyish brown, tinged with rufous on. the rump ; wings and tail dark brown ; chin and throat deep black, on the lower throat widening and forming a narrow band to the nape ; sides of head, neck, and under parts white, tinged with rufous buff on the flanks ; bill black ; legs plumbeous ; iris brown. Culmen 0.5, wing 2.55, tail 2.05, tarsus 0.7 inch. Sexes alike, and the young differ only in having shorter crests.
Hab. Europe generally, from Northern Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and from the Atlantic to the Ural ; not un¬common in some parts of Scotland, but rare in England.
In habits it has much in common with the other Titmice, but is much oftener to be seen searching for food on the ground. It affects conifer woods and groves, and alder swamps where conifer trees are near, and is rarely seen away from woods, or in gardens, and feeds on insects and their larvae, and to a smaller extent on fruit, seeds, and berries.
It is only migratory in some localities, being as a rule a wanderer during the winter, consorting with other Titmice, Goldcrests, and Nuthatches, wandering about in search of food. Its note differs from that of its allies, and is loud, clear, and sharp, resembling the syllables kirr, kirr, or kirrit. It places its nest usually in the hole of a tree, either excavating it itself or using an old woodpecker’s or any convenient hole, but it has been known to construct a nest not unlike that of a wren. The nest is usually constructed of grass, moss, wool, and feathers, and the eggs, 5 or 6 in number, are white, rather boldly spotted and blotched with bright red, measuring about 0.65 by 0.50.
265. Lophophanes cristatus
265. Crested Titmouse.