735. Uroloncha punctulata.
The Spotted Munia.
Loxia punctulata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 302 (1766). Loxia undulata, P. L. S. Mull. Syst. Nat., Anhang, p. 151 (1776). Munia undulata (Lath.), Blyth, Cat. p. 117; Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 506; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 354. Munia punctulata (Linn.), Hume, N. & E. p. 444; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 656; Sharpe, Cat, B. M. xiii, p. 346. Munia subundulata, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 48; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 398. Munia superstriata, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 481 (1874) ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 402. Munia inglisi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 39 (1877). Amadina punctulata (Linn.), Hume, Cat. no. 699; Oates, B. B. i, p. 368 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 262. Amadina subundulata (Godw.-Aust), Hume, Cat. no. 699 bis; id. S. F. xi, p. 272. Amadina superstriata (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 699 ter. Amadina inglisi (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 699 quat. Uroloncha punctulata (Linn.), Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 141.
Telia munia, Hind, in the North; Sing-baz, Shinbaz, Hind, in the Deccan and at Mussooree; Shubz munia, Beng.; Kakkara jinuwayi, Tel.; We-kurulla, Ceyl. ; Tinna kuruvi, Tam.
Coloration. Upper plumage dull chocolate-colour with the shafts pale; lower rump barred irregularly with brown and yellowish and streaked with white; upper tail-coverts glistening yellowish fulvous; tail fulvous-yellow ; wings chocolate, the coverts with pale shafts; sides of the head, chin, and throat rich chestnut; lower plumage white, each feather, with the exception of those on the abdomen, submarginally banded with fulvous-brown; under tail-coverts fulvous white mottled with black.
The above description applies to birds from the Continent of India, which, however, vary considerably among themselves in the shade of colouring of the rump and the amount and distinctness of the bars on this part. Birds from Assam, southwards to Burma, are less distinctly barred on the rump, the general colour of which and of the upper tail-coverts and tail is more olivaceous. Many species have been established on these slight differences, but I am unable to recognize them even as races, the differences being by no means constant over the same small areas.
Bill bluish black, paler and somewhat plumbeous on the lower mandible; iris deep reddish brown ; legs plumbeous ; claws horny.
Length nearly 5; tail 1.7; wing 2.1; tarsus .6 ; bill from gape .45.
Young birds are rufous-brown above and pale buff below without marks of any kind.
Distribution. The whole continent of India, except Sind, the Punjab, and portions of Rajputana and the N. W. Provinces, ascending the Himalayas up to about 5000 feet; Ceylon; the eastern part of the Empire from Assam to about the latitude of Tavoy. To the east, in China, this species is replaced by an allied race M. topela.
Habits, &c. Breeds almost throughout the year. The eggs measure about .65 by .46.