Loxia malacca Linn., Syst. Nat., 12th ed. i, p. 302 (1766) (Malacca, inerrore; Belgaum).
Linnaeus's name malacca is in part founded on his chinensis o£ the 10th ed., in which he refers to plates in Albin and Edwards which depict, the former the Black-headed Munia of India and .the latter the Black-headed Munia of Malacca etc. Linnaeus in this edition describes characters which refer equally well to either species, leaving out all reference to the chest and sides of the body. The name is indeterminable and cannot be used. In the 12th ed., however, although he still refers to Albin and Edwards he adds to his references another plate of Edwards's (t. 155) and also refers to Brisson, whilst in his description he definitely states that the breast and sides of the body are. white. Unfortunately therefore, although malacca is a geographical misnomer, we must retain it as the name for the Southern Indian bird.
Key to Subspecies.
A. Upper parts paler, extent of black on abdomen greater…………M. m. malacca, p. 78.
B. Upper parts darker, extent of black on abdomen less…………..M. m. orientalis, p. 79.