369. Tribura major.
The Large-billed Bush-Warbler.
Dumeticola major, Brooks, J, A. S. B. xli, p. 77 (1872) ; Stoliczka, S. F. ii, p. 401 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 242 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 65; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 448. Acrocephalus macrorhynchus.(Hume), apud Scully, S. F. iv, p. 146. Schoenicola major (Brooks), Hume, Cat. no. 519 quat. Lusciniola major (Brooks), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 124.
Coloration. In summer the whole upper plumage and the sides of the neck are dull olive-brown, rather darker on the crown, and with a fulvous tinge throughout; wing-coverts and tail brown, edged with rufescent olive-brown ; tail concolorous with the back; lores whitish; an indistinct cream-coloured supercilium; ear-coverts whitish with brown tips ; cheeks and sides of the throat white, elegantly barred with brown ; chin white; throat and upper breast white, spotted with brown; middle of abdomen white; remainder of the lower plumage ochraceous, the under tail-coverts broadly margined with dull white; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale buff. The sexes are probably alike.
The nestling is tinged with green throughout, and the throat is barred ; the upper breast is spotted with greenish brown.
The winter plumage of the adult is unknown, but does not probably differ from the summer plumage in any appreciable degree.
Iris dark brown; bill black above, pale fleshy beneath; mouth and edges of gape yellow; tarsus pale yellowish-waxy; toes darkish fleshy-brown ; claws brown horny (Scully). In the breeding-season the whole bill is black.
Length about 6 ; tail 2.4; wing 2.3 ; tarsus .8 to .9; bill from gape .8.
Distribution. In summer this species is found throughout Kashmir ; I have examined specimens collected in Gilgit, at Gulmurg, and at Kargil from June to August; and Scully collected it at Kizil Aghil, near Sanju, on his way to Yarkand in August. At this season T. major occurs from 6000 to 10,000 feet of elevation. Its winter-quarters are unknown, but it probably merely descends into the warm valleys at this season.
Habits, &c. Brooks remarks that this Warbler in Kashmir frequents exclusively places where the ground-cover is abundant; and Scully states that it occurs in long grass, is apparently very restless, and continually flits in grass from blade to blade.