Linota cannabina, (Linn.) Syst. Nat. i, p. 322 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 80, Taf. 121 ; (Hewitson), i. p. 200, pl. li. fig. 1. (egg) ; (Gould), B. of E. iii. pl. 191 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 19 ; Newton, ii. p. 153; Dresner, iv. p. 31, pl. 186 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 210 ; Saunders, p. 187 ; Lilford, iv. p. 61, pl. 31.
Linotte, French ; Pintarroxo, Portug. ; Camacho, Jamas, Span. ; Montanello, Fanello, Ital. ; Bluthanfling, German ; Knew, blasvink, Dutch ; Tornirisk, Dan. and Norw. ; Sampling, Swed. ; Hamppuvarpunen, Finn. ; Obuiknovennui-rapoloff, Russ.
Male ad. (England). Forehead and fore-crown blood-red ; the rest of the head and neck brownish grey with dark markings ; mantle warm chestnut-brown, the feathers with darker centres ; rump paler and marked with white ; wings and tail blackish with whitish margins ; upper tail-coverts blackish brown with whitish margins ; breast rich carmine-red ; rest of under parts dull white, the chin with dark stripes ; flanks washed with brown ; beak horn-colour, brown at base below ; legs pale warm brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.45, wing 3.15, tail 2.0, tarsus 0.7 inch. The female is browner and more striped on the tipper parts, has the breast and flanks striped with brown and lacks the red on the fore¬head and breast. In the winter the plumage of the male is duller, and the red on the forehead and breast is obscured by whitish margins to the feathers.
Hab. Europe generally, as far north as the Trondhjem Fjord and Lulea, south into North Africa, west to the Canaries and Madeira, and east through Asia Minor and Persia to Sind, Gilgit, and Turkestan.
In the summer it frequents the outskirts of woods, groves, gardens, and hedgerows, and is often seen on bush-covered hill¬sides, and in the winter it collects in flocks and roams about the fields in company with other Finches. Though quiet and peaceable it is tolerably wary, and in winter rather shy. It feeds chiefly on seeds especially those of an oily nature, and consumes those of many noxious weeds. Its note is a short, harsh, geck, gecker, its song sweet and flute-like ; and it is much esteemed as a cage-bird. In March it commences nidification, and its nest, which is placed in a tree, bush, or hedge, occasionally even on the ground, is constructed of straws, bents and rootlets, lined with fine roots, wool, and horsehair. The eggs which are deposited in April and June, two broods being raised in the season, are pale sea-green or blue-green finely spotted and blotched with violet-grey, pale red, and blood-red, and average about 0.7l by 0.54. Asiatic birds are rather greyer and brighter in colour ; and have been separated subspecifically under the name of L. fringillirostris Bp. and Schl. (L. bella, Cabanis). But I cannot consider them as even subspecifically distinct.
458. Linota cannabina