1551. Leptoptilus javanicus.
The Smaller Adjutant.
Ciconia javanica, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 188 (1821). Leptoptilus javanicus, Blyth, Cat. p. 277 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 732 ; Blyth Wald. Birds Burm. p. 159; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 469; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 51; Davids. & Wend. ibid. p. 90; Ball, ibid. p. 230; Hume, Cat. no. 916; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1113; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 432; Parker, ibid. p. 483; Reid, S. F. x, p. 73; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 263; Barnes, Birds Bom. p, 374; Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 330 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 264; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 317.
The Hair-crested Stork, Jerdon; Chinjara, Chandana, Chandiari, Bang-gor, Chota garur, H.; Madan-chur, Modun-tiki, Beng.; Tokla-mooru, Assam.; Dodalr-konga, Dodal gatti-gadu, Tel. Mana, Ceylon; Don-mi-gwet, Burm.
Coloration. Scattered hair-like feathers and down on neck and on sides of head, much thicker about the nape, dark brown ; upper plumage, wings, and tail black, glossed with metallic green; feathers of the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts closely barred across, a coppery spot in some skins (breeding-plumage ?) close to the tip of each larger secondary-covert; longer scapulars and tertiaries edged laterally with white; lower parts white, except the wing-lining which is black; under tail-coverts longer than in L. dubius, very soft.
Young birds have more feathers about the nape.
Bill dirty yellowish ; bare top of head dirty green ; nude face and neck much tinged with yellow and at seasons with red ; irides whitish ; legs dusky black (Jerdon).
Length 54; tail 11; wing 26 ; tarsus 10.5; bill from gape 12, Females appear to be considerably smaller.
Distribution. The greater part of India but nowhere common, rare or wanting to the westward, not observed in Bajputana, Sind, or the Punjab, and of doubtful occurrence in the Bombay Presidency. This Adjutant has been observed on the Malabar coast, and it occurs and breeds in Ceylon. It is found throughout Burma and the Malay Peninsula, Eastern China, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.
Habits, &c. This is by no means so familiar a bird as its larger relative, nor is it, as a rule at all events, a feeder on carrion. It keeps to well-wooded and watered tracts, living on fish, reptiles, locusts, crabs, &c. It breeds in Pegu and the neighbourhood of Moulmein later than L. dubius, and in Ceylon from February to April. The details of nidification are similar to those of the larger Adjutant. The eggs measure about 2.84 by 2.09.