The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the bronchial semi-rings; the edges of both mandibles smooth or the upper one with a notch; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, bilaminated; wing with ten primaries; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of the forehead, the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper edge is to the culmen; plumage of the nestling like that of the adult female, but paler; nostrils never entirely concealed from view although frequently covered by hairs or bristles ; rictal bristles present; rectrices twelve; the inner and hind toes equal.

The Crateropodidae form an enormous family of tropical and subtropical species which I find it convenient, to divide into six subfamilies or natural groups.

Sexes alike ; gregarious; extremely noisy; legs and feet large ; wing short and rounded; habits partly terrestrial, partly arboreal; colour of egg, with few exceptions, un-
spotted white or blue……………….Crateropodinae,
Soxes alike ; solitary or occurring in very small troops; not noisy; legs and feet strong;
wing short and rounded ; habits, skulking in bushes or on the ground, evading obser-vation ; colour of egg, with few exceptions, spotted……………….Timeliinae, p. 129. [p. 71.
Sexes usually dissimilar; solitary; tarsus usually very long and smooth; wing usually rounded and short; habits strictly terrestrial; colour of egg usually spotted……………….Brachypteryginae,
Sexes alike; solitary or occurring in small troops ; not noisy ; habits entirely arboreal,never descending to the ground ; colour of egg, with few exceptions, spotted……………….Sibiinae, p. 194. [p. 177.
Sexes invariably dissimilar; solitary or occuring in small troops; colours brilliant; habits entirely arboreal; colour of egg usually spotted……………….Liotrichinae, p. 220.
Sexes alike; solitary or occurring in small troops; habits entirely arboreal; tarsi very short, never exceeding in Length the middle toe or claw; wing rounded and moderately long; nape usually furnished with some hairs ; colour of egg, so far as is known, spotted……………….Brachypodius, [p 252.

The Fauna Of British India including Ceylon and Burma
OATES EW. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Vol.1 1889.
Title in Book: 
Book Author: 
Eugene William Oates, Edited by William Thomas Blanford
Page No: 
Vol. 1
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