1150. Larus marinus

Larus marinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 225 (1766) ; Naum. x. p. 438, Taf. 268, 269 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 501, pl. cxli. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pl. 430 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. v. pl. 55 ; Audub. B. Am. pl. 241 ; Dresser, viii. p. 427, pl. 604 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxv. p. 241 ; id. Manual, p. 677 ; Ridgway, p. 28 ; Lilford, vi. p. 57, pl. 25.
Goeland a manteau noir, French ; Gaivota, Alcatraz, Portug. ; Gavinot, Span. ; Mugnaiaccio, Ital. ; Mantel-mowe, German ; Mantelmeeuw, Dutch ; Veidi-bjalla, Svart-bakur, Icel. ; Svartbag-maage, Dan. ; Hafmaage, Norweg. ; Hafstrut, Swed. ; Merilokki, Finn.
Male ad. (Sweden). Head, neck, tail, and entire under parts white ; mantle black with a slaty tinge ; primaries black washed with slate on the inner web, the first and second with a broad white tip, the second with a black band across the white, the third with a narrow white tip, the inner ones with the terminal portion slate-grey, with a black subterminal band and white tip ; secondaries and scapulars tipped with white ; bill light yellow with a red patch towards the end of lower mandible ; legs and feet greyish white with a fleshy tinge ; iris hazel ; edge of eyelids vermilion. Culmen 3.5, wing 20.0, tail 9.0, tarsus 3.0 inch.
Hab. Northern Europe, east to the Petchora river, north in Norway to the Russian frontier, and in Sweden to about Sundsvall ; the Faeroes and Iceland ; rarer in Greenland ; fairly common in the northern part of Britain ; in winter migrating south to the Canaries and Mediterranean, where it is rare, east to Egypt, and the Volga ; the Atlantic coasts of North America, south to Virginia and Florida.
It feeds on fish and offal, and being extremely predatory in its habits it destroys large numbers of the eggs and young of water birds, and will kill and devour wounded birds. Its note is a loud clear cry, yow, yow, yow, and it often utters a hoarse cackle when on the wing. It nests not only on the sea coast but also about inland waters, making a large nest of dry grass, heather, wool, moss, and sometimes feathers, which it places on a rock or on the ground, and in May deposits 2 to 3 eggs, which are lighter or darker olive-brown, with dark or brown blotches, and in size measure about 3.0 by 2.13.

A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 2. 1903.
Title in Book: 
1150. Larus marinus
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
Page No: 
Common name: 
Greater Black Backed Gull
Great Black-backed Gull
Larus marinus
Vol. 2

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