234. Larus fuscus.
THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL.
Male 22". Legs yellow. Bill yellow, angle red. Head, neck, tail, and below white. First quill with white mirror; second with smaller white mirror. Bases of quills lead colour, tips white. On third quill grey wedge becomes visible, and increases to the seventh. The other quills lead colour with white tips.— In winter: Head and neck streaked dusky brown. N. Europe and Mediterranean, ranging south in winter to Canaries, Egypt, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf. (J. 978.)
L. occidentalis. 21" to 22". Legs yellow. Bill yellow, angle red. Head, neck, tail, and below white. Mantle darker than in L. affinis. All primaries tipped white. First, second, and third quills chiefly black, with white mirror on first, and a white spot on the second. No grey on inner webs of outer quills. Pacific coast of N. America.
L. schistisagus. 24" to 25". Legs grey. Bill yellow, with red spot at angle. Head, neck, tail, and below white. Mantle darker than in Z. affinis. All primaries with white tips. The first quill for more than 2" crossed by narrow dark bar; the second with white subterminal spot on outer web, and a patch of white on inner; third quill transversely barred blackish brown. Inner webs of outer quills grey. Behring Sea to N. Japan.
Mantle deep sooty black.
L. marinus. 28" to 30". The Great Black-backed Gull. Legs flesh colour. Bill yellow, angle red. Remiges thirty-four. All quills broadly tipped white. First quill white for nearly 3"; second quill with large mirror and with black spot on inner web.— In winter: Crown and nape with grey streaks. N. Europe down to about 50° N., ranging in winter to Canaries, Mediterranean and Egyptian coast, Greenland, N. America, and Bermuda.
L. dominicanus. 23". Legs olive. Bill yellow, red at angle. Resembles L. marinus, but first quill is white for 2", and second quill has small white mirror of irregular shape. S. America to S. Africa and New Zealand.
Quills mostly black. Mantle blue-grey.