1153. Hirundo rustica gutturalis

(1153) Hirundo rustica gutturalis Scop.
THE EASTERN SWALLOW.
Hirundo rustica gutturalis, Fauna B, I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. iii, p. 241.
In the ‘Fauna’ I gave the breeding area as “Eastern Siberia from the Yenesei to Japan. Breeding birds from the high desert countries of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Gilgit, Ladak, Northern Tibet and North-West China and all those breeding in the mountains South of the Brahmaputra must be accepted as this form. Birds breeding in Cachar, Manipur and the hills of Northern Burma are also referable to this race.”
Whitehead says that this Swallow (he calls it rustica) “is a fairly common resident in the Miranzai Valley, nesting freely at Thull (2,550 ft.).” Cumming says that it is a Summer visitor to Seistan, only 1,700 feet, and Perreau records it as common in Chitral as a breeding bird. None of these observers give any account of the breeding beyond saying that it does undoubtedly nest in all these places.
The only other records of the breeding of the Eastern Swallow in India are those of the nests taken by myself in Assam and others taken by Betham at Quetta.
In North Cachar this Swallow seemed to breed only occasionally, and then at elevations over 4,000 feet, though in 1891 and 1892 two pairs of birds made their nests in my bungalow at Gunjong, which was only 2,500 feet elevation, while a few other pairs nested in the village below my house. With these exceptions a nest taken at 4,500 feet was the only one I actually saw in situ under 5,000 feet. Godwin-Austin, however, took nests and eggs at Asalu, also under 3,000 feet, where he says these birds nested in the high roofs of the Naga houses. In the fifteen years I was in North Cachar
I never saw a single nest in Asalu, but at Hungrum, 6,000 feet, the birds bred regularly, and in the adjoining Naga Hills, 6,000 to 9,000 feet, they also nested yearly.
The nests in my own bungalow were placed on projecting bits of rafter where these crossed under the ends of beams. In the Naga houses they always selected rafters near the apex of the roof.
The nests I took in North Cachar all had full clutches of eggs on dates between 9th April and 31st May, In Quetta Betham took clutches on the 6th and 23rd May ; the birds he describes as common but, as they only bred in the houses of the Pathans, they were not easy to get. Marshall also says this Swallow is common in Quetta, In China they breed from March to the end of May, making their nests in mosques, temples and houses.
Nests and eggs are exactly like those of the European Swallow, but average smaller.
Eighty eggs average 18.9 x 13.4 mm. ; maxima 21.7 x 13.8 and. 19.7 x 14.2 mm. ; minima 17.0 x 13.3 and 17.7 x 12.6 mm.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 3. 1934.
Title in Book: 
1153. Hirundo rustica gutturalis
Spp Author: 
Scop.
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
1153
Year: 
1934
Page No: 
112
Common name: 
Eastern Swallow
M_ID: 
22504
M_SN: 
Hirundo rustica gutturalis
Volume: 
Vol. 3
Term name: 
id: 
14239

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