775. Gymnorhis flavicollis.
The Fellow-throated Sparrow.
Fringilla flavicollis, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 120. Petronia flavicollis (Frankl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 120 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 293. Gymnoris flavicollis (Frankl.), Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 497; Hume, N. & E. p. 461; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223; Hume, Cat. no. 711 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 157. Passer flavicollis (Frankl.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 368 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 605 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 267.
The Yellow-necked Sparrow, Jerd. ; Raji, Jangli-churi, Hind.; Adavi pichike, Konde pichike, Cheruka pichike, Tel.
Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and scapulars ashy brown; tail brown, narrowly edged with whity brown; lesser wing-coverts chestnut; median coverts brown, tipped with white ; greater coverts and tertiaries brown, margined and tipped with pale buff; the other quills dark brown, very narrowly margined with buff ; primary-coverts and winglet black ; chin dull white ; throat yellow; sides of the head and neck and the breast pale ashy brown ; remainder of lower plumage ashy white, the flanks darker.
Female, Resembles the male, but has the yellow throat-spot very pale and the lesser wing-coverts rufous-brown, not chestnut.
Iris dark brown; legs and feet greyish plumbeous ; the male appears to have the bill black in winter, brown in summer; the female to have it always brown. The colour of the bill of the male is by no means constantly black in winter and brown in summer, but I cannot discover any reasons for the exceptions.
Length about 6; tail 2.1 ; wing 3.2; tarsus .6; bill from gape .6.
Distribution. The plains of India from the foot of the Himalayas down to Travancore, and from Sind eastwards to about the longitude of Midnapore in Bengal; also Ceylon. This species ascends the Himalayas in parts, and the hill-tracts of the south of India up to about 4000 feet. It extends westwards to Persia.
Habits, &c. Breeds from April to July, constructing a small nest of grass and feathers in holes of trees and more rarely in houses. The eggs, three or four in number, are greenish white, densely blotched all over with brown, and measure .74 by .55.