(2035) Grus monachus.
THE HOODED CRANE.
Grus monacha Temm., Pl. Col., pl. 555 (1835) (Yesso and Korea).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Lores, forehead and fore-crown covered with black bristles; remainder of head and neck pure white; the rest of the plumage dark slaty-grey, more or less tinged with brown, especially on the upper parts ; edges of the feathers both above and below fringed with grey, these fringes almost disappearing in abraded plumage; quills, the decomposed ends of the drooping secondaries and the tail blackish-brown.
Colours of soft parts. " Iris yellow; bill greenish, tinged with red towards the base; feet dull reddish " (Blyth).
Measurements. Wing 510 to 545 mm.; tail 155 to 180 mm.; tarsus 208 to 220 mm.; culmen 92 to 110 mm.
Young birds appear to be a much paler grey ; the bead is well covered with bristly feathers, grey with black shafts on the crown, whiter on the forehead and black on the lores and in a patch on each side of the forehead.
Distribution. Breeding in Japan and Eastern Siberia, migrating South to China in Winter. The only quite certain record of this Crane's occurrence in India is that of a young bird shot by me in North Cachar in December 1899 but I saw several of these Cranes on two occasions on the lower reaches of the Subansiri in N. Lakhimpur. Hume saw a small flock of Cranes in Manipur which must have been this species and other probable occurrences are recorded by Anderson at Ponsee, West of Bhamo and by Couchman near Myothit in Upper Burma.
Nidification. I can find nothing on record beyond the statement that it undoubtedly breeds in Dauria, Amur and in Eastern Siberia and that it arrives in its breeding-haunts in April and leaves again in August. It has bred in captivity in England.
Habits. This Crane is said to haunt open plains and marshes but to be nowhere very numerous. Even when migrating, according to David and Oustalet, it collects only in very small parties or pairs. Those I saw in India were in small flocks of seven and eight and were on the move. When disturbed they at once formed in line in flight, trumpeting loudly at the start.