1001. Common Crane.
Grus communis, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl, iii. p. 60 (1793) ; Dresser, vii. p. 337, pl. 505 ; Tegetmeier and Blyth, Nat. Hist. Cranes, p. 59 ; Blanf. F, Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 186 ; Blaauw, Monogr. Cranes, p. 1, part i. and xvii. fig. 1 (egg) ; Saunders, p. 521 ; Lilford, iv. p. 151, pl. 64 ; G. cinerea, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl, iv. p. 103, tab. xix. (1809) ; Naum. ix. p. 345, Taf. 231 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 270 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 19 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 308, pl. lxxxi. ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 796 ; Ardea grus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (1766) ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiii. p. 250 ; G. lilfordi, Sharpe, tom. cit. p. 252.
La Grue, French ; Grou, Portug. ; Grulla, Span. ; Kranich, German ; Kraan, Dutch ; Trane, Dan. and Norweg. ; Trana, Swed. ; Kuorga, Lapp. ; Kurki, Finn. ; Jouravl-sieryi, Russ. ; Rhernong, Arab. ; Kurunch, Hindu.
Male ad. (N. Russia). Crown and lores nearly naked, the skin blackish with a broad band of red across the occiput and more or less covered with black hair ; upper nape greyish black, below which the hind neck is white extending up to the eye, and a narrow white streak from the base of each mandible ; throat and upper neck slaty blackish ; lower neck, upper and under parts ashy grey ; primaries black ; secondaries elongated, lax, conspicuously tipped or with the outer web black ; tail grey with the terminal portion blackish ; bill greenish brown, paler at the base, dull flesh-coloured at the base below ; legs blackish grey ; iris reddish. Culmen 4.7, wing 24.0, tail 8.1, tarsus 9.6 inch. Sexes alike.
Hab. Europe, breeding as far north as Lapland and as far south as Spain ; formerly an inhabitant of England, but now of rare and accidental occurrence ; Asia, east to Japan, north to Northern Siberia, and south in winter to India and China.
Frequents marshes and bogs covered here and there with bushes, and is shy and wary in its general habits. Its note is a loud clear trumpet-like sound. It feeds on various vegetable substances, such as shoots, roots, grain, where ob¬tainable, berries, &c., and insects, small reptiles, and even small mammals. Its nest is usually rather a scanty, simple structure, and is placed on the ground, and the eggs, 2 in number, are usually deposited from the middle of May to the middle of June, and vary from light olive-grey to olive-brown more or less streaked and blotched with pale brown shell spots and reddish brown surface markings, and measure about 3.61 by 2.46.
1001. Grus communis
1001. Common Crane.