1186. Glaucidium brodiei.
The Collared Pigmy Owlet.
Noctua brodiei, Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 152. Noctua tubiger, Hodgs. As. Res. xix. p. 175 (1836). Athene brodiei, Blyth, Cat. p. 40; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 66. Glaucidium brodiei, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 146; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 258; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 17; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 417; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 26; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 349; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 155 ; Cock & Marsh. S. F. i, p. 349; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 152; xiv, pt. 2, p. 68; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 212; Blyth & Wold. Birds Burm. p. 67; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 39; Hume, Cat. no. 80; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 148; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 160; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 111; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 434; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 23 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 558; vii, p. 375. Glaucidium immaculatus, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 420 (1870). Athene minutilla, Gould, Birds of Asia, i, pl. 15 (1870).
Coloration. Lores white with black tips, a narrow white supercilium ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and crown of head olive-brown (varying: to blackish), with short transverse buff, white, or rufous bars and spots; a black spot on each side of the nape, followed by a fulvous half-collar formed by deep buff feathers with brown borders ; remainder of upper parts olive or rufous-brown, often more rufous than the head, with narrow white, buff, or rufous cross-bars ; some large white spots on the outer scapulars ; quills dark brown, with buff, rufous, or white spots on the outer, and partial bars on the inner margins, the two united by subobsolete pale bands, the first two primaries and tips of the others unspotted; secondaries tipped with buff; tail dark brown, with white, buff, or rufous bars, interrupted at the shafts; chin and sides of the neck behind the ear-coverts white, followed by a broad olive band barred with white or rufous across the throat; upper breast and a stripe down the middle of breast and abdomen to lower tail-coverts white; sides of breast barred dark olive and buff or rufous; abdomen white, with large rufous or olive spots, dark at the edges; legs olive, with pale bars.
Young birds are much more uniformly coloured above; they have only a few buff streaks on the head, and no bars either there or on the mantle. This is the G. immaculatum of Hume, Athene minutilla of Gould.
The birds of the Western Himalayas are browner, as a rule, those of the Eastern Himalayas more rufous, some Sikhim skins being tinged with ferruginous buff, but other Sikhim birds are blackish olive, not rufous at all. Assamese and Burmese birds also vary.
Bill, cere, and feet yellowish green; iris bright yellow; claws horny (Bingham).
Length about 6.5; tail 2.5; wing 3.6; tarsus .8; bill from gape .7. Males are a little smaller than females, and Burmese birds are rather less in dimensions than Himalayan.
Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, being found in Sikhim from the base of the hills to a considerable elevation, but chiefly in the "Western Himalayas between 5500 and 7500 feet. This species occurs also in the hills south of the Assam valley, and in Karennee and the Tenasserim ranges, again at Perak in the Malay Peninsula, and in Southern China.
Habits, &c. This is a bird of hill-forests, living partly on insects, partly on birds, small mammals, and, according to Stoliczka, lizards and frogs. Its call, first ascertained by Hutton, consists of four clear whistled notes, whoo-whoo whoo-whoo, easily imitated. Like other species of Glaucidium, this Owl is somewhat diurnal in its habits. It lays four round white eggs, generally about May or June, in holes in trees.