684. Geocichla sibirica.
The Siberian Ground-Thrush.
Turdus sibiricus, Pall. Reis. Puss. Reich. iii, p. 694 (1776); Hume, Cat. no. 369 quat. Oreocincla inframarginata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, p. 106 (1860) ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 70; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 223. Turdulus davisoni, Hume, S. F. v, pp. 63, 136 (1877). Turdulus sibericus (Pall.), Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 255, 513; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 132. Geocichla sibirica (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 180; Oates, B. B. i, p. 4.
Coloration. Male. The fully adult has the whole plumage slaty black, the margins of the feathers paler ; the outer three pairs of tail-feathers narrowly tipped with white; a broad white supercilium to the nape; the under tail-coverts tipped with white; axillaries white tipped with dark ashy, and the under wing-coverts ashy tipped white. Males after the second autumn moult are bluish slaty instead of slaty black, but the middle of the abdomen is white ; and the distribution of white marks is the same as in the fully adult. Males after the first autumn moult are similar to those just described, but the centres of the feathers of the upper abdomen and sides of the body are white and the tips darker than the other parts, causing a barred appearance; they have also a rufous band across the breast, the remains of the nestling plumage. The nestling is unknown.
Female. The whole upper plumage, wings, and tail olive-brown with a slaty tinge on the rump; the wing-coverts tipped with buff; the outer webs of quills tinged with rufescent; the outer tail-feathers narrowly tipped white; an indistinct buff supercilium to the nape ; sides of the head mixed brown and buff; cheeks buff bordered below by a dusky stripe; chin and throat buff; breast pale buff, the feathers tipped and margined with brown; middle of abdomen white; sides of the body olivaceous brown obsoletely barred darker; under tail-coverts white with basal brown margins; axillaries white tipped olive-brown; under wing-coverts olive-brown tipped white.
Adult males have the bill black ; iris deep brown ; front of legs, feet, and claws greenish yellow ; back of legs dirty yellow. Females have the iris dark brown; the upper mandible very dark brown ; the lower mandible and gape to angle of gonys dirty yellow; legs, feet, and claws orange-yellow (Hume & Davison).
Length about 9; tail 3.6: wing 4.8; tarsus 1.1; bill from gape 1.1.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the eastern portions of the Empire. This species has been obtained on Muleyit and Nwalabo mountains in Tenasserim; at Toungngoo ; in Karennee ; and in Manipur. It has also occurred in the Andamans, a female specimen from these islands having been named O. inframarginata by Blyth. In winter this bird is found from China to Java, and it summers in Siberia and Japan.