686. Geocichla citrina.
The Orange-headed Ground-Thrush.
Turdus citrinus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 350 (1790). Geocichla citrina (Lath.), Myth, Cat. p. 163 ; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 189; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 517; Hume, N. & E. p. 229; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 250; Hume, Cat. no. 355; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 457 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 283; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 172; Oates, B. B. i, p. 3; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 171 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 100. Geocichla layardi, Wald. A. M. H. H. (4) v, p. 416 (1870); Hume, S. F. iii, p. 401.
Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, and lower parts as far as the vent orange-chestnut, darker on ihe crown and paler beneath ; vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts pure white; back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts bluish grey, the edges of the feathers paler ; median wing-coverts broadly tipped white, forming a conspicuous spot; remaining coverts and the quills dark brown, edged exteriorly with bluish grey ; tail ashy brown indistinctly cross-barred; axillaries white, tipped with grey; under wing-coverts ashy tipped with white; a large white patch on the underside of the quills.
Female. Of a paler chestnut throughout; the back and scapulars greenish brown with yellowish margins; upper tail-coverts and the outer webs of the feathers of the wings and tail suffused with green.
Bill very dark brown, the gape and the base of the lower mandible flesh-colour; inside of mouth flesh-colour; eyelids slate-colour; iris dark hazel; legs fleshy pink ; claws pink.
Length nearly 9; tail 3 ; wing 4.6; tarsus 1.3; bill from gape 1.1.
Distribution. Found in summer throughout the Himalayas from Murree to the extreme east of Assam up to 5000 or 6000 feet. At other times of the year this Thrush occurs sparingly in the plains of India, extending occasionally to Ceylon, but it has not been known to occur in the Punjab, Rajputana, Sind, or Guzerat, and it appears to be extremely rare in the west and south of the peninsula. This bird is more abundant to the east, being found throughout the whole country stretching from Assam to Tenasserim, where a considerable number remain the whole year and breed. This species extends down the Malay peninsula as far as Tongkah, but does not otherwise occur outside the limits of the Empire.
Habits, &c. Breeds on the Himalayas and also in Burma from April to July, constructing a large nest of coarse grasses, roots, aud fibres, in a bush or low tree, and laying three or four eggs, which are greenish white freckled with rufous, and measure about 1 by .77.