588. Geokichia citrina cyanotis

(588) Geokichla citrina Cyanotis (Jard. & Selby).
The White-throated, or Southern, Orange-headed Ground-Thrush.
Geocichla citrina Cyanotis, Fauna B. I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. ii, p. 150.
Geokichla citrina Cyanotis, ibid. vol. viii, p. 624.
The Eastern limits of this Thrush have not been ascertained but, on the West of Southern India, it is common from South Travan¬core to North Kanara and thence to Nasik and Khandesh, whilst Davidson found it breeding at Kondabhari Ghat. Jerdon recorded this Thrush from Goomsoor, and recently the Vernay Expeditionfound it common in the hill-tracts of Vizagapatam in well-wooded ravines and also not uncommon in suitable places in the Godaveri delta, while a single specimen was obtained in the Shevaroy Hills.
It is, like other races of this species, a forest-breeding bird and is found from the foot-hills, but generally above 1,000 feet, up to 4,000 feet. Davidson says that it is the common Thrush of Kanara and breeds in great numbers. Vidal found it common round about Dapuli in the Southern Konkan, where, so far from its being a forest bird, he records that “it breeds in the gardens about the Station in June, July and August.” Mr. Jardine, who sent Vidal many nests and eggs, describes the former:—“The nest is made of roots, twigs and grass, with a good deal of mud. The egg-cavity is about 5.1/2 inches in diameter and from 2 to 3 inches deep. The nest is generally placed in a fork of a tree low down. The highest I ever saw was about 15 feet from the ground in a kongal-tree, but they are mostly found in mango trees.”
Darling describes the nest as “very like a Blackbird’s, a foundation of leaves and sandy clay, the main body of the nest composed of roots, intermingled with a few twigs and a little grass, and the cavity lined with roots and the slender petioles of the nelly-kai.” Rhodes Morgan also refers to “the usual clay foundation which is found in almost all Thrushes’ nests.”
As a whole, therefore, the nests seem to differ from those of the- Northern bird in having very little, or no, moss used as a material and in always having the clay foundation.
Davidson sent me many clutches of this bird’s eggs but no description of the nest ; but both Bourdillon and Betham, who sent me others, describe the nests as massive cups made of twigs, grass and roots, with sometimes moss and with “much mud incorporated.”
The breeding season is generally June and July, after the rains break, but many birds breed in August. Rhodes Morgan gives August and September as the breeding months, and Betham also took eggs from July to September. On the other hand, in Travancore Bourdillon took nests with eggs or young in May and June.
Unlike the Northern race, the Southern bird is said to be very shy. Darling says of a pair he attempted to secure : “The birds were very shy. Directly I approached the nest the bird dropped noiselessly to the ground and crept away through the brushwood.
The eggs, three or four in number, cannot be distinguished from those of the preceding bird but, as a series, are darker and less boldly marked, and I have seen no variations at all striking in character.
Forty eggs average 25.0 x 18.5 mm. : maxima 27.0 x 19.1 and 25.1 x 19.2 mm. ; minima 22.0 x 18.1 and 23.5 x 18.0 mm.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 2. 1933.
Title in Book: 
588. Geokichia citrina cyanotis
Spp Author: 
Jard.&selby
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
588
Year: 
1933
Page No: 
131
Common name: 
White Throated Or Sourn Orange Headed ground Thrush
M_ID: 
27010
M_SN: 
Geokichla citrina cyanota
Volume: 
Vol. 2
Term name: 
id: 
13756

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