80. Ianthocincla rufigularis.
The Rufous-chinned Laughing- Thrush.
Ianthocincla rufogularis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 48; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, p. 54. Cinclosoma rufimenta, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 148 (1830). Garrulax rufogularis ( Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 96. Trochalopteron rufogulare (Gould), Horsf. M. Cat. i, p. 210; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 47; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 104; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 306 ; Hume, N. § E. p. 261; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 76 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 155; id. Cat. no. 421; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 365 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 168.
Coloration. A large patch on the lores pale fulvous or whitish ; a large ring of grey round the eye ; ear-coverts bright rufous ; forehead and crown black; the cheeks and a large patch under the eye and ear-coverts mingled black and white, produced narrowly to the back of the ear-coverts ; a broad supercilium reaching to the nape, the sides of the neck, and the whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with fulvous, each feather of the hind neck, back, and upper rump tipped with a lunate black bar; wing-coverts olive-brown, the larger series broadly tipped with black ; primary-coverts dark brown, margined with black; winglet ashy, tipped black; the earlier primaries with the outer webs hoary, the others each with a black patch, which increases progressively in extent up to the last, the basal portions at the same time turning olivaceous : secondaries with the outer webs olive-brown, broadly tipped with black, succeeded by a narrow white line; tertiaries entirely olive-brown and tipped black and white ; tail rufescent, with a subterminal black band and deep rufous tips; chin and upper throat bright rufous like the ear-coverts; lower throat white ; under tail-coverts deep chestnut; remaining lower plumage ashy-brown, albescent on the abdomen, each feather of the breast, upper abdomen, and sides of the body spotted with black.
Bill horny yellow; legs fleshy brown ; orbital skin blue (Jerdon).
Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 3.6; tarsus 1.3; bill from gape 1.1.
The young have the crown olive-brown tipped black, the chin and upper throat white, and the black bars on the upper plumage smaller in size. The plumage of the adult is rapidly assumed.
This species varies much in certain points of its coloration, and the above description applies to birds found between Almora and Murree. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan birds have merely the point of the chin rufous ; the ear-coverts are black, generally entirely black, occasionally with a rufous tinge posteriorly, and the loral patch is white.
Assamese birds (Shillong) have the loral patch, the greater part of the ear-coverts, the chin, and the whole throat rufous.
The reader is referred for further information on this point to Hume's remarks on the subject (loc. cit.).
Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country to Assam as far as the Daphla hills ; the Khasi and Garo hills. In the N.W. this bird appears to extend also to the vale of Kashmir. It is found chiefly from 5000 to 8000 feet of elevation.
Habits, &c. Breeds from May to July and probably earlier, constructing a nest of creeper-tendrils lined with black roots in low branches of trees, and laying three pure white eggs which measure 1.06 by .77.
* I. cinereiceps, Styan, is said to occur in Yunnan, and, consequently, is likely to be found in Burma. It differs from I. cineracea chiefly in having the crown dark ashy instead of black and the ear-coverts rufous instead of white.