145. lanthocinela rufogularis occidentalis

(145) Ianthocincla rufogularis occidentalis (Hartert).
THE KUMAN RUFOUS-CHINNED LAUGHING-THRUSH.
Ianthocincla rufogularis occidentalis, Fauna B. I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. i, p. 159.
This subspecies is common throughout the Outer Himalayas from Murree, where it is rare, to Nepal. It breeds commonly in Garhwal, Dehra Dun and the Kuman between 1,500 and 5,000 feet, and in the Simla States seems to be equally common up to 6,000 feet or rather higher, though Jones does not include it in his ‘Birds of Simla.’ Hutton, it should be noted, found it breeding in Simla at 6,500 feet.
The nest appears to be invariably built in bushes or small trees in dense forest and the birds seem to prefer those which stand in ravines or in broken ground. Occasionally they frequent secondary growth or thick scrub and Whymper found one nest in the latter at Naini Tal, near the Bhim Tal lake, at about 5,000 feet. Betham and Osmaston took several nests at Dehra Dun, all in deep forest between 2,000 and 3,000 feet.
* I have altered the trivial name from Kashmir, as that is really a misnomer It is rare in Kashmir but very common in the Kuman.
They breed from early April, Osmaston taking eggs on the 10th of that month, to the end of July.
The nest is a rather flimsy ill-made cup of various materials, such as grass-bents, rootlets, small pliant twigs and fibre, less often with a few bamboo-spathes or dead leaves intermixed. Some nests are made entirely of one or two of these materials to the exclusion of the rest ; sometimes all of them are used. The lining is always of fine roots or fine root-like fibre. The site selected may be in a thick bush only a foot or two from the ground, in a shrub at 5 or 6 feet, or in a small sapling between 8 and 16 feet. In the latter case it is built in a fork, upright as a rule, though one sent to Hume was in a horizontal one.
The eggs number two or three, very often the former, and are, of course, indistinguishable from those of the other races. Twenty eggs average 26.1 x 19.4 mm. ; maxima 28.5 x 21.0 mm. ; minima 28.4 x 18.0 and 26.1 x 17.8 mm.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 1. 1932.
Title in Book: 
145. lanthocinela rufogularis occidentalis
Spp Author: 
Hartert.
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
145
Year: 
1932
Page No: 
121
Common name: 
Kuman Rufous Chinned Laughing Thrush
M_ID: 
24821
M_SN: 
Garrulax rufogularis occidentalis
Volume: 
Vol. 1
id: 
13352

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith