108. Fulica atra.
Dasari, India; Bara godhan, Pumeah; Boli kodi (Telugu).
Male 14 1/2" to 16". Legs with three garters. Mid toe and claw 3-85". Bill white. Head, neck, and under tail-coverts deep black. Above blackish, tinged blue. Under parts ashy.— In Young: Under parts grey, with white tips to secondaries. Europe, Asia, Japan, and the Philippines, India (not observed in Ceylon), Burma, and the Malayan Archipelago as far as Java. Seven to twelve eggs (1.98 x 1.4), grey, speckled with black. (J. 903. B. 1405.) See illustration, p. 133.
Also F. cristata. 16". Mid toe and claw 4.2". Outer secondaries without white tips. Frontal shield corrugated. Africa.
F. australis. 14". Mid toe and claw 3.4". With frontal shield smooth. From Australia and Tasmania.
Secondaries with white tips. Under tail-coverts white. Five species from S. America. F. cornuta. 19". Frontal shield with caruncles.
F. ardesiaca. 16". Mid toe and claw 4". Frontal shield plain and rounded. F. armillata. 18". Mid toe and claw 4". Frontal shield pointed. F. leucopyga. 14". Mid toe and claw 3.4". First primary plain. F. gigantea. 20". Mid toe and claw 5 1/2". Toes dark red.
Outer secondaries with broad white tips.
F. americana. 14". Mid toe and claw 3.1". Bill dusky. From N. and C. America.
F. caribaea. 13 1/2". Mid toe and claw 3.1". From the Lesser Antilles.
F. leucoptera. 11". Mid toe and claw 3.11. Bill yellow. From S. America.
F. alai. 11 1/2". Mid toe and claw 3.2". Bill yellow. From Sandwich Islands.
F. novae zealandiae. Not identified.
Also the extinct species— F. newtoni, from Mauritius; F. minor, from Oregon; F. desjardini and F. prior, from Queensland.
Also the extinct genus Leguatra. One species— L. gigantea, from Mauritius.
Also five fossil genera of Rallidae— Gypsornis, one species, from France; Telmatornis, two species, from New Jersey ; Orthocnemus, four species, from S. France ; Elaphrocnemus, three species, from S. France; and Tapinopus, one species, from S. France.
Also the family MESITIDAE, akin to the Rallidae, but with hind toe on same level as others. Rectrices sixteen. Primaries ten. Breast-bone with deep notch on each side. Five pairs of powder-down patches (two dorsal, two ventral, and one lateral). Bill shorter than head. Nostrils linear, upturned, more than half length of beak, and covered above. One genus—Mesites. One species— M. variegata, 10 1/2", mid toe and claw 1-05", from Madagascar.