Francolinus Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xi, pt. ii, p. 316 (1818).
Type, Tetrao francolinus Linn.
This genus contains a very large group of Partridges represented by various species and subspecies almost throughout temperate and tropical Europe, Africa and Asia. In general appearance they are very like the true Partridges of the genus Perdix but have only fourteen tail-feathers instead of sixteen or eighteen. The legs are both longer and stouter and in the males are furnished with a spur, sometimes, however, very small or obsolete ; the wing is about one-quarter to one-third longer than the tail, but is short and rounded ; the third or fourth primary is longest, the fifth and sixth a little shorter. In some species the sexes are alike, in others dissimilar.
Key to Species.
A. Quills transversely barred or spotted with buff on both webs.
a. Scapulars with a conspicuous buff submarginal band.
a1. Males with chestnut collar and females with chestnut nuchal patch………F. francolinus, p. 408.
b1. No chestnut collar or patch…………..F. pictus, p. 412.
B. No submarginal huff hand on scapulars…………..F. pintadeanus, p. 415.
B. Quills without transverse bars or spots.
c.Breast buff with narrow cross-bars…………..F. pondicerianus, p. 41
d.Breast brown "with longitudinal white stripes…………..F. gularis, p. 417.