Francolinus vulgaris, Steph, in Shaw’s Gen. Zool. xi. p. 319 (1819) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 259 ; Dresser, vii, p. 123, pl. 473 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 135 ; Tetrao francolinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 275 (1766) ; (Ogilvie Grant), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxii. p. 132.
Francolino, Ital. ; Turatz, Turkish ; Durraj, Persian ; Kula-titar, Hindu.
Male ad. (Asia Minor). Crown and nape-feathers brown with blackish centres ; sides of hind crown and lower nape marked with white ; sides of head black with a long white patch below and behind the eye ; a broad chestnut-red collar round the neck ; chin, throat, neck, and breast other¬wise deep black, spotted with white on the hind neck ; upper parts blackish brown varied with bright ochreous and whitish ochreous ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail black barred with white ; quills blackish brown barred with reddish ochre ; flanks black spotted with white ; abdomen rufous varied with white ; under tail-coverts chestnut tipped with white ; bill Mack ; legs reddish orange ; iris brown. Culmen 1.0, wing 6.9, tail 4.1, tarsus 2.2 inch. The female is much paler and duller, the chestnut collar is restricted to a patch on the hind neck, the rump and upper tail-coverts brown barred with brownish buff ; sides of head bully white ; chin and upper throat white ; rest of under parts buffy white barred and blotched with blackish brown ; under tail-coverts chestnut marked with pale brown and black.
Hab. Cyprus, Palestine, Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia, India east and south to Manipur ; now extinct in Sicily.
Frequents grassy places and scrub near cultivation, and also cultivated ground, and feeds on grain, seeds, and insects. The note of the male is live syllabled, harsh, and not unlike the crow of a Pheasant. It breeds, in India, from May to August, usually in June, and deposits 6 to 10 eggs, making a loosely constructed nest of straw, grass, roots, or leaves, placed on the ground. The eggs are of a uniform warm drab, buffy brown, or stone-colour, and measure 1.56 by 1.28.
952. Francolinus vulgaris