(1328) Eurylaimus javanicus javanicus.
Eurylaimus javanicus Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii, p. 170 (1822) (Java). Eurylaimus javanicus. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 4.
Vernacular names. Nok-toa-rao (Siam).
Description. Whole head and neck purplish-red, darkest on the crown, black on the lores and almost black on the forehead and with a very narrow black line below the eye; back and scapulars black, boldly marked with yellow on the outer webs ; rump and upper tail~covert,- black with broad yellow tips; tail black, all but the central feathers with a sub-terminal spot or band of fulvous-white; primaries dark brown, all but the second and third with a yellow edge to the base of the outer web and nearly all with a white spot on the base of the inner web; secondaries black, with a broad patch of yellow on the base of the outer webs and a diagonal patch of white at the base of the inner webs; lower parts like the head hut paler and brighter towards the vent and abdomen; a narrow purple-black band across the upper breast, sometimes with a wash of bronze-grey both above and below the hand, sometimes only below it; thighs black; axillaries and under wing-coverts yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Iris bright blue or dark china-blue; bill blue on the basal two-thirds, yellow or greenish-yellow on the terminal third and horny on the extreme edges ; legs and feet purplish-fleshy or fleshy-brown.
Measurements. Total length about-, 230 mm.; wing 107 to 115 mm.; tail 65 to 70 mm.; tarsus 27 to 28 mm.; culmen 23 to 26 ram. long and 24 to 26 mm. broad at the gape.
Female. Similar to the male but with no breast band.
Young birds have the head and nape greenish-brown, with faintly paler shafts : back dull brown, with central yellow streaks ; the lower surface dull yellowish, with brighter yellow shafts and with dusky streaks on the breast and flanks; the wing-coverts are brown with yellow central streaks, widest at the tips.
Distribution. East Central and South Burma from Karenni and Tenasserim. South to Malay States, Java and Sumatra; South and West Siam. The bird found in Borneo has been separated as Eurylaimus j. brookei.
Nidification. Nests of this bird were taken by Grubanerf in 1880 near Perak, and Waterstradt took several in Bast Malacca. The nests are like gigantic editions of those of Leptocoma asiatica. Shaped like huge pears with an ample porch over the entrance at the side, they measure anything from two and a half to three and a half feet. They are made of twigs, roots, leaves, grass, moss etc. very strongly and compactly put together and lined with leaves. Over the whole nest are placed all kinds of decorations such as lichen, green moss, caterpillar excretae etc. fastened on with cobwebs, tendrils and plant stems, which also hang in a long tail below the nest. They are fixed to boughs of. trees, often on the banks of streams, and are very conspicuous objects. Only two or three eggs have been taken but it is possible they may lay more than this number. The ground-colour is white or creamy-white and they are speckled and spotted with deep purple, dark reddish-brown or, in one pair, pale reddish-lavender. Ten eggs average 27.0 x 18.8 mm.; maxima 28.0 x 19.7 and 27.9 x 20.0 mm.: minima 26.1 X 17.1 mm. They lay from March to May.
Habits. This Broadbill frequents both forest and well-wooded open country according to Davison, even entering shady gardens. Its note he says " consists of a few single notes uttered at short intervals and ending with a rolling metallic chirr." Unlike some of the Broadbills which are very crepuscular this bird moves about all day, seldom climbing or hopping about the branches but seizing insects on the wing and making short flights from one perch to another. Its diet consists of coleoptera, caterpillars, larvae etc., but never fruit. Davison found a small lizard about four inches long had been swallowed by one. It is a bird of the plains and lower hills.