801. Emberiza rutila.
The Chestnut Bunting.
Emberiza rutila, Fall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 698 (1776) ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 354 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 514. Euspiza rutila (Pall.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 168; Hume, Cat. no. 722 bis; id. S. F. xi, p. 282. Citrinella rutila (Pall.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 157.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage, lesser and median wing-coverts, sides of the head and neck, chin, throat, and fore neck are deep chestnut, each feather fringed with ashy yellow; greater coverts and tertiaries dark brown, margined with chestnut; primaries, secondaries, and tail-feathers dark brown, narrowly margined with ochraceous ; lower plumage from the fore neck downwards yellow, the sides of the body and the under tail-coverts streaked with dusky green.
In the spring the ashy-yellow margins get worn away on all the chestnut parts of the plumage, and these become deep chestnut.
Female. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, and lesser wing-coverts ashy brown streaked with black ; rump chestnut, edged with ashy; upper tail-coverts rufous-brown, edged with ashy; median and greater wing-coverts and tertiaries dark brown, broadly margined with fulvous or rufous ; quills and tail brown, edged with ashy or fulvous ; lores, an indistinct supercilium, cheeks, chin, and throat fulvous ; a brown moustachial streak ; remaining lower plumage oil-yellow, tinged with brown on the breast, which is also obsoletely streaked; sides of the body boldly streaked with dusky green.
The young bird is brown above and pale yellowish below, everywhere streaked with dark brown.
Iris bright brown ; bill above dark horny, below pale ; legs pale yellowish brown (Wardlaw Ramsay),
Length about 6; tail 2.5; wing 2.9; tarsus .7; bill from gape .5.
Distribution. The Eastern portion of the Empire. This species has been recorded from Sikhim, the Bhutan Doars, Manipur, Karennee, and various localities in Pegu and Northern and Central Tenasserim. It visits India only in the winter, at which season it is also found in China and Siain. It summers in North China and Eastern Siberia.
* Dr. Scully (Ibis, 1881, p. 575) indicates an undescribed species of Bunting allied to E. luteola.