522. RUSTIC BUNTING.
Emberiza rustica, Pall, Reise R. R. iii. p. 698 (1776) ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 177 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 24 ; id. B. of As. v. pl. 10 ; Naum. xiii. 2 p. 180, Taf. 386, figs. 1, 2 ; Newton, ii. p. 29 ; Dresser, iv. p. 229, pl. 219 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 490 : Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 572 ; Saunders, p. 217 ; Lilford, iv. p. 20, pl. 11.
Zigolo boschereccio Ital. ; Waldammer German ; Videsparf, Swed. ; Pohjansirkku Finn.
Male ad. (N. Russia). Crown and sides of the head black ; an indistinct greyish white median stripe on the crown ; supercilium and nuchal patch white ; lower neck encircled by a bay collar ; mantle reddish brown, marked with black, the feathers margined with buff ; rump and upper tail- coverts rich bay ; quills blackish brown, margined with buff ; wing-coverts tipped with white, forming two alar bars ; tail blackish brown, the two outer feathers with an oblique white terminal patch ; under parts white, the flanks broadly streaked with deep bay ; bill brown above, greyish yellow below ; legs yellowish flesh ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.45, wing 3.1, tail 2.4, tarsus 0.8 inch. The female differs only in being duller in colour in having the black on the head less pure, and marked with buffy white. The young bird resembles that of E. schoeniclus, but is more rufous in colour ; the supercilium and nuchal patch are buffy white, and the bay band across the breast is obscured by buff ; there is also a dark buff stripe through the middle of the crown.
Hab. N. E. Finland and N. Russia, ranging across Siberia ; on passage and is winter in Japan, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, and Turkestan ; has occurred as a rare straggler in Sweden. Heligoland, Germany, Austria, Italy, S. France, Holland, and has been obtained at least thrice in England.
Frequents the damp densely bush-covered portions of the forests, and is most difficult to procure, being very restless and active in its movements, continually flitting from tree to tree, or hiding in the dense underbush, On passage, and in winter it collects in large flocks and is seen on the birch trees, and amongst the bushes. Its call-note is not unlike that of the Redwing, and its song is described as being melodious and sweet. Like its congeners it feeds on insects and seeds. It breeds in N. E. Finland, N. Russia, and Northern Siberia, making a rather loose nest of wiry grass-bents and depositing in June 4 to 6 eggs greenish grey in colour with olivaceous brown blotches and without any scratchy lines, measuring about 0.78 by 0.58. Occasionally the ground colour is reddish in tinge.
522. Emberiza rustica
522. RUSTIC BUNTING.