796. Emberiza hortulana.
The Ortolan Bunting.
Emberiza hortulana, Linn, Syst. Nat. i, p. 309 (1766); Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 484 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 372 ; Hume, Cat. no. 715 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 80; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 574; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 530. Euspiza hortulana (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 129. Emberiza shah, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 465 (1850).
Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape dusky olive-green ; back and scapulars pale rufous, with broad black streaks ; rump and upper tail-coverts pale rufous, with less distinct black streaks ; tail dark brown edged with rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers white on the terminal half of the inner web ; lesser wing-coverts ashy; remaining coverts and quills brown with rufous margins ; feathers on the eyelids, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat yellow ; sides of the head and neck dusky olive ; a moustachial streak pale brown ; upper breast dull olive-yellow; remainder of lower plumage cinnamon-rufous.
The above is the full breeding-plumage. I have not been able to examine freshly moulted autumn birds, but these are said to have pale margins to the feathers of the head and breast as in the other species of Buntings.
Female. Resembles the male very closely but is much paler on chin and throat, and the upper breast is frequently streaked with brown, which may, however, be only remains of the immature plumage.
The young bird is pale rufous throughout, densely streaked with dark brown both above and below.
Bill dark flesh-colour, rather darker above than below ; iris brown ; legs pale fleshy red (Dresser).
Length about 6.5; tail 2.8 ; wing 3.6; tarsus .75 ; bill from gape .55.
Distribution. A rare visitor to Gilgit, where this species has been obtained in May. This Bunting is found in Afghanistan and Turkestan and extends westwards throughout Europe.