Emberiza citrinella, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 309 (1766) ; Naum. iv. p. 234, Taf. 102, figs. 1, 2 ; Hewitson, i. p. 188, pl. xivii, fig. 2 (egg) ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 173 ; id. B, of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 22 ; Newton, ii. p. 43 ; Dresser, iv. p. 171, pl. 209 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 515 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 561 ; Saunders, p. 209 ; Lilford, iv. p. 26, pl. 14.
Bruant jaune, French: Cerillo, Span. ; Zigolo giallo, Ital. ; Goldammer, German ; Geelgors, Dutch ; Gulspurv, Dan. and Norw. ; Gulsparf, Swed. ; Keltasirkku, Finn. ; Obiknovennoi- ovsyanka, Russ.
Male ad. (England). Head and throat citron-yellow, the forehead, sides, and back of crown striped with blackish ; mantle brown, striped with dark brown, the scapulars rufous-tinged ; rump and upper tail-coverts bay, tinged with fulvous ; wings and tail dark brown, with narrow, external yellowish margins, the wing-coverts margined with cinnamon and dull yellow, the two outer rectrices white on the terminal part of inner web ; under parts citron-yellow, the upper breast and flanks mottled with cinnamon, the latter striped with brown ; bill bluish ; legs pale brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.45, wing 3.25, tail 2.75, tarsus 0.7 inch. Female duller, the yellow on the plumage fainter, the upper parts darker-streaked, the breast mottled with brown. In winter both sexes have the plumage more dingy, owing to the fulvous margins to the plumage.
Hab. Central and Northern Europe, north into Lapland, west to the Canaries; east in Asia as far as Krasnojarsk and Turkestan ; in winter ranging as far south as North Africa.
Frequents groves, gardens, and fields where there are hedge¬rows or bushes, and is a resident in most parts of Europe except the high north, collecting in flocks in the autumn and ranging about the fields, or frequenting farm-yards in search of food. In the summer it feeds chiefly on insects, but in the autumn and winter on wild berries, grain, and seeds. Its well known simple but far from disagreeable song may be heard continually during the spring and summer later almost than any other bird, and even on fine, bright, winter days. Its nest is usually placed near or on the ground, in a bush or hedgerow, and is constructed of dry grass-stems, roots, moss, and occasionally fine twigs, lined with fine rootlets and hair. The eggs, which are deposited in May, June, or July, are usually 4 to 6 in number, dull white, sometimes with a russet tinge, covered with long hair-like streaks which have the appearance of having been drawn with a pen, and spotted and blurred with reddish purple, and measure about 0.86 by 0.64. Two broods are reared in the season.
Specimens have been obtained in the Ural, and on the Yenesei river, which have the throat chestnut as in E. leuco¬cephala (cf. Ibis 1901, p. 453, pl. x) but whether they form only a variety or more I am as yet unable to say.
511. Emberiza citrinella