(1137) Emberiza calandra calandra.
Emberiza calandra linn., Syst. Nat, 10th ed. i, p. 176 (1758) (Sweden).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Above rufous-brown to ashy-brown, varying greatly in tone and in some (fide Witherby) yellowish-brown; streaked throughout with blackish-brown ; the streaks on the rump finer and in some birds almost obsolete; the upper tail-coverts tipped with white; tail dark brown edged with fulvous-ashy ; wing-feathers brown edged with more rufous-ashy; a paler patch under and behind the ear-coverts, which are like the crown; lower plumage pale buff, darker on the flanks, albescent on the throat and abdomen, streaked everywhere except on the abdomen with dark brown.
Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill yellowish-horny, darker on the culmen and at the tip ; legs and feet fleshy-yellow or pale yellow.
Measurements. Total length 180 to 190 mm.; wing 89 to 101 mm.; tail 67 to 76 mm.; bill from skull 12 to 15 mm.; tarsus 24 to 27 mm. (Witherby).
The Young are paler above and more profusely streaked except on the centre of the crown ; the chin and throat are more buff and less profusely streaked and the abdomen is whiter and almost unstreaked.
Distribution. Practically all Europe, North Africa and Western Asia, occasionally coming as far South as Sind in Winter.
Nidification. In the more Northern areas the Corn-Bunting breeds during June, July and early August and in the Southern countries a month to six weeks earlier. The nest is a large, rather loosely-built cup of grass, mixed to some extent with roots and lined with finer grass or, more rarely, hair. It is generally placed on the ground in growing crops, sometimes in grass and occasionally in furze or other bushes a few inches above the ground. The eggs number four or rive, exceptionally six. They vary considerably; the ground-colour ranges from pure white to greyish, dull pink or rufescent; the markings, which consist of blotches, coarse lines and streaks, are of blackish-blue, dull purple or reddish-brown, with secondary blotches and smudges of dull grey and lavender. One hundred eggs average 24.3 x 17.6 mm.: maxima 28.0x19.0 mm.; minima 21.0 x 17.0 and 22 xl6.0 mm.
Habits. The Corn-Bunting is a bird of open country or fields of wheat and other grain and it seems very partial to downs and cultivation close to the sea. It has no song but the male keeps up a continuous dreary call when the hen is sitting. It is a resident bird over the greater part of its range but some of the Asiatic birds more South in winter and have been recorded from Jhang in the Punjab ( Whistler and Ticehurst) and from Doulatpur in Sind (Murry).