506. Emberiza aureola

506. YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING.
EMBERIZA AUREOLA.
Emberiza aureola, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, ii. p. 711 (1773) ; Gould, B. of E. iii. p. 174 ; Naum. xiii. pt. 2, p. 166, taf. 381 figs. 1, 2 Dresser, iv. p. 223, pl. 218 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 332 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 509 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 603 ; Oates, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, ii. p. 259.
Strenatka tschernolitsaya, Russ. ; Kultasirkku, Finn.
Male ad. (Archangel). Forehead, sides of face, ear-coverts, chin, and upper throat deep black ; crown and upper parts deep chestnut, the back striped with black ; quills deep brown margined with fulvous, the secondaries washed with rufous ; least wing-coverts greyish black, median coverts white, larger coverts dark brown margined with rufous buff and narrowly tipped with dull white ; tail blackish brown, the outer feathers chiefly white ; under parts bright yellow, the upper breast crossed by a chestnut band, the flanks striped with blackish brown ; upper mandible dark horn-brown, lower mandible brownish flesh ; legs pale brownish flesh ; iris brown. Culmen, 0.45, wing 3.1, tail 2.2, tarsus 0.75 inch. The female has the upper parts greyish blown, the crown and rump tinged with chestnut, the back striped with black ; wings and tail as in the male, but the median coverts are blackish brown tipped with fulvous white ; chin, lores, and sides of head dark greyish brown, the rest of the under parts pale citron-yellow, the flanks striped with brown. Like its allies the plumage is much duller in the winter owing to the ashy margins to the feathers.
Hab. Northern Russia, west to the frontier of Finland, east across Siberia to Japan and as far north as Kamchatka ; in winter ranging south to China, Siam, and the southern extremity of the Malay peninsula ; in the west to Palestine, and as a rare straggler it has occurred in central France, and Italy.
Frequents bush-covered plains on the outskirts of the forests, willow-thickets in damp places, and occurs in the mountains to an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 feet, and in the winter frequents reed- and rush-beds. Its song, which is short but pleasant, is uttered from the top of a bush or a plant-stem, and it is said to be a most industrious songster. Its nest is placed on the ground amongst the grass, or on a low bush, and is constructed of dry bents and rootlets well lined with horsehair. The eggs, 4 to 5, rarely 6 in number, are deposited early in June, and are greenish grey clouded with darker grey or purplish grey and more or less marked with blackish brown scratches and are subject to considerable variation. In size they measure about 0.75 by 0.58.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 1. 1902.
Title in Book: 
506. Emberiza aureola
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
506
Year: 
1902
Page No: 
349
Common name: 
Yellow Breasted Bunting
M_ID: 
32085
M_CN: 
Yellow-breasted Bunting
M_SN: 
Emberiza aureola
Volume: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 
id: 
11136

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