988. Tiga javanensis.
The Common Golden-backed Three-toed Woodpecker.
Picus javanensis, Ljung, Kon. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1797, p. 134; Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 164. Picus tiga, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 177 (1821). Chrysonotus tridactylus, Swains. Classif. B. ii, p. 369 (1837). Picus (Tiga) intermedius, partim, and P. (T.) tridactylus (Swains.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 193 (1845). Picus (Brachypternopicus) rubropygialis, Malh. Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 400. Tiga intermedia and T. tridactyla, Blyth, Cat. p. 56. Chrysonota tiga and C. intermedius, Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 657. Chrysonotus intermedius and C. rubropygialis, Jerdon, B.I. i, p. 299. Tiga intermedia, Hume, S. F. iii, pp. 74, 328; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 311; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2).iv, p. 580; v, p. 567 ; vii, p. 432. Chrysonotus rubropygialis, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 390. Tiga javanensis, Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 75; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 146, 501; Hume, Cat. no. 184; Oates, S. F. viii, p. 105; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 164; Davison, S. F. x, p. 357; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 65; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 412 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 311.
The Common Three-toed Woodpecker; The Southern Three-toed Woodpecker, Jerdon.
Coloration. Male. Crown and long occipital crest crimson, the feathers dark ashy at the base, then black, then red ; forehead often brownish; sides of head and neck white, except a broad black band from the eye to the nape, and another black band, often much mixed with white, from the malar region to the shoulder; hind neck and uppermost back black; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts golden olive, with orange or scarlet edges; rump and lower back crimson; upper tail-coverts black, often brownish ; outer webs of secondary quills golden olive, rest of quills brownish black, with white spots on the inner webs only, tips of primaries sometimes very pale or whitish ; tail black; lower parts white or buffy white; a broken black stripe down the middle of the chin and throat, getting broader below ; feathers of breast and abdomen with broad black edges, so broad on the breast as to produce a scale-like pattern ; flanks and lower tail-coverts barred black.
Female. Whole crown and occipital crest black, with elongate subterminal spots on each feather.
Bill very dark brown; iris hazel; eyelids plumbeous ; legs greenish ; claws horn-colour (Oates).
Length 11.5 ; tail 4; wing 5.8 ; tarsus .95 ; bill from gape 1.5.
Distribution. Common throughout Burma, extending to Siam, Cambodia, Cochin China, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. Pound also in the hill-forests near the Malabar coast of India as far north as the Wynaad. The statement that the type of T. rubropygialis came from Bengal needs confirmation (according to Jerdon it came from Bangalore). Apparently this species is found nowhere in the Peninsula of India except the southern part of the Malabar coast, and it is also wanting in the Assam hills, Cachar, and Manipur.
The Malabar form called Chrysonotus rubropygialis by Jerdon is rather smaller than the Burmese, and has rather more white on the breast, but there is no constant distinction.
Habits, &c. Very similar to those of Brachypternus. The present species has much the same shrill call and is equally familiar. The eggs have been taken in March in the Malabar forests by F. Bourdillon, and in Burma from March to May by Oates and Bingham. They are laid, like those of other Woodpeckers, in holes in trees, are white, glossy, and usually three in number, and measure about 1.11 by .8.