Hirundo, pt., Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 313 (1766).
Hirundo, Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B. p. 55 (1817) ..... C. urbica.
Chelidon, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 550 ..... C. urbica.
Deliehon, Moore, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 104 ..... C. nipalensis.
Chelidonaria, Reichenow, J. f. O. 1889, p. 187 ..... C. urbica.
Distinguished from all the other Hirundinidoe by the feathered toes.
Range. Over the greater part of the northern Old World. Throughout the Palaearctic Region, wintering in the Indian and Ethiopian Regions.
Clavis specierum.
a. Subeaudales albae.
a'. Rectrix extima minime albo notata.
a". Supraeaudales longiores nigra, reliquae albae, uropygio coneolores.
a'''. Mentum album, gastraeo reliquo concolor.
a.' Major : ala 4.25-4.3 poll. : subtus pure alba (ad.), gutture fumoso vel isabelline (juv.) : cauda valde furcata ..... 1. urbica, p. 5.
b'. Minor : ala 4 poll. : subtus alba, dilute fumoso-brun-bco lavata : cauda minus furcata ..... 2. cashmiriensis, p. 19.
b'''. Mentum et genae ad basin nigrae : subtus alba, fumoso-brunnco lavata : cauda minus furcata ..... 3. dasypus, p. 23.
b". Supraeaudales longiores albae, reliquae concolores : mentum minime nigro maculatum : cauda paullo furcata ..... 4. lagopus, p. 25.
b'. Rectrix extima intus albo notata ..... 5. albigena, p. 29.
b. Subeaudales nigrae ..... 6. nipalensis, p. 31.
NO species of House-Martin is found in the New World, nor does any species, so far as we know, occur within the limits of the Australian Region. In the Palaearctic Region the House-Martins are universally distributed, breeding in the Eurasian Sub-Region even beyond the Arctic Circle. C. urbica is the western species and is replaced in the Central Siberian province and thence eastwards by C. lagopus, whilst still further to the eastwards C. dasypus takes its place in the Japanese Islands. Our information as to the House-Martins in Central Asia and their distribution seems to us to be still imperfect, but even the winter-ranges of C. urbica and C. lagopus appear to preserve the eastern and western character of their breeding-habitats. In the ease of the Common Martin, as has been noted with many other Swallows, there is a tendency to found breeding-colonies in outlying districts, as, for instance, in the Nilghiris. Of C. albigena we still know so little that we cannot speculate upon its distribution. C. cashmiriensis is a southern form of C. urbica and is characteristic of the mountainous fauna included in the Himalo-Chinese Sub-Region ; while C. nipalensis, the most aberrant member of the genus Chelidon, is strictly an inhabitant of the northern Himalo-Malayan Sub¬-Region.

A Monograph Of The Hirundinidae Or Family Of Swallows.
Sharpe, Richard Bowdler, and Claude Wilmott Wyatt. A Monograph of the Hirundinidae: Or Family of Swallows. Vol. 1. 1894.
Title in Book: 
Book Author: 
Richard Bowdler
Page No: 
Vol. 1
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