4. Corvus macrorhynchus.
Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagler, Syst. Av., Corvus, sp. 3 (1827) ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 461; Hume, Cat. no. 600 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 307; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 250; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, p. 4. Corvus levaillantii, Less. Traite, p. 328 (1831); Hume, N. & E. p. 411; id. S. F. ii, p. 243; Anders. Yunnan Exped. Aves, p. 589. Corvus culminatus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 96; Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 553; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 295; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 20. Corvus intermedius, Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 171; Jerd. B. I. ii, p.297; Hume & Henders.Lah. to Yark. p. 237; Hume, Cat.no.661. Corvus tenuirostris, Moore, apud Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 297. Corvus andamanensis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1866, p. 420. Corone macrorhyncha ( Wagl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 38; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 346. Corone levaillanti (Less.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 39. Corvus enca, Horsf. apud Hume, Cat. no. 662.
The Indian Corby, the Black Hill-Crow, the Slender-billed Crow, Jerd.; Dhar or Dhal kowa, Hind, in the North; Dheri-kowa, Hind, in the South; Karrial, Hind.; Dad-kag, Beng.; Kaki, Tel.; Kaka, Tam.; Ulak-pho, Lepch.; Ulak, Bhut.; Goyegamma-Kaka, Ceyl.
Coloration. Upper plumage glossy black except the hind neck and sides of neck, which are almost glossless, and of which the feathers are disintegrated and silky, not of the intense black of the other parts, and with the shafts not distinguishable from the webs.
Iris dark brown; legs, feet, and bill black.
Length about 19 ; tail 7 to 9 ; wing 11 to 14 ; tarsus about 2.2 ; bill from forehead to tip 2.2 to 2.5.
In the British Museum there are about 300 specimens of the Jungle-Crow from all parts of India and Burma. An examination of this series makes it evident, as Hume has already shown, that there is but one species of this large Crow in the Empire. Neither by size, structure, nor coloration is it possible to separate the series into two or more species. The smallest birds occur in the North¬west Himalayas and the largest in the Andamans and Burma, and between the two extremes there is a connected chain of intermediate specimens.
Distribution. The Jungle-Crow occurs in every portion of the Empire and Ceylon, except the higher parts of the Himalayas, and is a resident species. It extends in the same or a modified form down to the islands of South-eastern Asia and to China.
Habits, &c. This Crow is not only found in forests and the re¬moter parts of the jungle, but it also frequents towns and villages in considerable numbers. It associates with the ordinary House-Crow ; and the two species have precisely the same habits.
The nesting-season commences in the middle of January, and lasts throughout February. The nest, a large structure made of twigs and lined with some soft material such as hair or grass, is placed near the summit of a tolerably large tree well away from human habitations. The eggs, four or five in number, are green marked with various shades of brown, and measure about 1.7 by 1.2.