601. BLACK CHOW.
Corvus corone, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 155 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p. 54, Taf. 53, fig. 2 ; Hewitson, i. p. 222, pl. lviii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. iii. pl. 221 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 58 ; Newton, ii. p. 274 ; Dresser, iv. p. 531, pl. 262, tig. 2, 263, fig. 1 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. iii. p. 36 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 533 ; Oates, F. Brit. Ind. Birds, i. p. 16 ; Saunders, p. 243 ; Lilford, ii. p. 46, pl 20.
Corneille noire, French ; Gralha, Portug. ; Corneja negra, Spun. ; Cornecchia nera, Ital. ; Schwarze Krahe, Germ. ; Kraai, Dutch ; Sort Krage, Dan. ; Chernaya Vorona, Russ. ; Hashiboso-garasu, Jap.
Male ad. (Scotland). Jet black, on the upper parts chiefly glossed with purple, the wings and tail with greenish purple ; tail slightly rounded ; bill and legs blade ; iris brown. Culmen 2.3, wing 12.8, tail 7.10, tarsus 2.30 inch. Sexes alike.
Hab. Europe, from Great Britain and Denmark to the Mediterranean, but chiefly in the west, becoming rarer east of the Elbe ; of rare occurrence in Sweden ; Asia, sparingly to the Yenesei, east of which it (C. orientalis, Eversm.) is the prevalent form ; north to Kamchatka, south to Mongolia, North China, and Japan (C. japonensis, Bp.), where it is common, south-west to eastern Turkestan and Kashmir.
In habits it is cautious and wary, and except where there is a carcass or where food is plentiful it is usually seen in pairs or alone. Its flight is direct and performed by regular flaps of its fully extended wings, and its note is a tolerably loud, clear, croak. It is an omnivorous feeder, but ; flesh or fish forms its staple food ; carrion, fish that has been cast up on the shore shell-fish, young birds, eggs, new born or weakly lambs all come equally welcome, and when driven by hunger it is said even to eat berries. Its nest, which is placed on a tree or rock, is bulky, constructed of sticks and twigs worked together with mould, and well lined with moss, hair, wool, and feathers ; the eggs, 4 to 6 in number, are usually deposited in April or early in May, and are pale bluish green, sometimes tinged with olive, spotted and blotched with purplish grey shell-markings and lighter or darker brown surface-blotches ; in size measuring about 1.72 by 1.09.
601. Corvus corone
601. BLACK CHOW.