The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the bronchial semi-rings. The edges of both mandibles smooth, or the upper one simply notched; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, composed of two entire longitudinal laminae; wing with ten primaries; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of forehead, the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper edge is to the culmen ; plumage of the nestling like that of the adult female, but paler ; nostrils hidden by feathers and bristles ; rectrices twelve ; sexes absolutely alike; an autumn moult only.
The Crows are divided into three subfamilies by the following characters: -
The first primary much exceeding half the Length of the second; plumage more or Jess glossy and firm; Length of the bill considerably more than its depth ………………….Corvinae, p. 11.
The first primary never exceeding half the Length of the second and usually much less than half; plumage firm; Length of bill considerably more than its depth . Parivae, p. 45. The first primary much exceeding half the Length of the second; plumage very lax and copious; Length of bill usually equal to, or less than, its depth, only very occasionally slightly longer………………….Paradoxornithinae, [p. 60.